HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT MBA, HRM P.RAJARAO, MANUGURU


UNIT – 1

INTRODUCTION TO HRM

Meaning of Human Resources

According to Leon C. Megginson, the term human resources (HR) can be thought of as “the total knowledge, skills, creative abilities, talents and aptitudes of an organization’s workforce, as well as the value, attitudes and beliefs of the individuals involved.” The term human resources can also be explained in the sense that it is a resource like any natural resource. It does mean that the management can get and use the skill, knowledge, ability etc., through the development of skills, tapping and utilizing them again and again by developing a positive attitude among employees. The aspect of ‘attitude’ among the human resources aspects gained significance along with globalization.
Managing of these human resources deals with the above areas and also provides an answer to the question referred above. Now, we shall discuss the meaning of human resources management (HRM) and other areas.

Meaning and Definition of HRM

In simple sense, human resources management means employing people, developing their resources, utilizing, maintaining and compensating their services in tune with the job and organizational requirements with a view to contribute to the goals of the organization, individual and the society.
Michael J. Jucius defined Personnel Management as “the field of management which has to do with planning, organizing, and controlling the functions of procuring, developing, maintaining and utilizing a labour force, such that the:
a) Objectives for which the company is established are attained economically and effectively,
b) Objectives of all levels of personnel are serve to the highest possible degree, and
c) Objective of society are duly considered and served.”

According to Pulapa Subba Rao, human resources management (HRM) is managing (planning, organizing, directing and controlling) the functions of employing, developing, compensating and utilizing human resources, resulting I n the creation and development of human and industrial relations which would shape the future policies and practices of human resource management, with a view to contribute proportionately (due to them) to the organizational, individual and social goals.

Differences between Personnel Management and Human Resources Management:

Personnel Management is different from Human Resources Management. Personnel means persons employed. Hence, personnel management views the man as economic man who works for money or salary. Human resources management treats the people as human beings having economic, social and psychological needs. Thus, HRM is broader in scope compared to personnel management. John Storey differentiated personnel management from human resources management.

FUNCTIONS OF HRM

The functions of HRM can be broadly classified into two categories, viz.
i. Managerial functions and
ii. Operative functions.

I. Managerial functions
Managerial functions of personnel management involve planning, organizing, directing and controlling. All these functions influence the operative functions.

i. Planning:
It is a predetermined course of action. Planning pertains to formulating strategies of personnel programmers and changes in advance that will contribute to the organizational goals. In other words, it involves planning of human resources, requirements, recruitment, selection, training etc.

ii. Organizing:
An organization is a means to an end. It is essential to carry out the determined course of action. In the words of J.C. Massie, an organization is a “structure and a process by which a co-operative group of human beings allocates its task among its members, identifies relationships and integrates its activities towards a common objective.”

iii. Directing:
The next logical function after completing planning and organizing is the execution of the plan. The basic function of personnel management at any level is motivating, commanding, leading and activating people. The willing and effective co-operation of employees for the attainment of organizational goals is possible through proper direction.

iv. Controlling:
After planning, organizing and directing various actives of personnel management, the performance is to be verified in order to know that the personnel functions are performed in conformity with the actual with the plans, identification of deviations if any and correcting of identified deviations.

II. Operative Functions:
The operative functions of human resources management are related to specific activities of personnel management viz., employment, development, compensation and relations. All these functions are interacted with managerial functions. Further, these functions are to be performed in conjunction with management functions.
i. Job Analysis:

It is the process of study and collection of information relating to the operations and responsibilities of a specific job. It includes:
• Collection of data, information, facts and ideas relating to various aspects of jobs including men, machines and materials.

ii. Human Resources Planning:
It is a process for determination and assuring that the organization will have an adequate number of qualified persons, available at proper times, performing jobs which would meet the needs of the organization and which would provide satisfaction for the individuals involved. It involves:
• Estimation of present and future requirements and supply of human resources based on objectives and long range plans of the organization.
iii. Recruitment:
It is the process of searching for prospective employees and stimulating them to apply for jobs in an organization. It deals with:
• Identification of existing sources of applicants and developing them.
• Creation/identification of new sources of applicants.
iv. Selection:
It is the process of ascertaining the qualifications, experiences, skills, knowledge etc., of an applicant with a view to appraising his/her suitability to a job. This function includes:
• Framing and developing application blanks.
• Creating and developing valid and reliable testing techniques.
• Formulating interviewing techniques.
• Checking of references.
v. Placement:
• Counseling the functional managers regarding placement.
• Conducting follow-up study, appraising employee performance in order to determine employee adjustment with the job.
• Correcting misplacements, if any.
vi. Induction and Orientation: Induction and orientation are the techniques by which a new employee is rehabilitated in the changed surrounding and introduced to the practices, policies, purposes and people etc., of the organization.

2. Human Resources Development: It is the process of improving, and changing the skills, Knowledge, creative ability, aptitude, values, commitment etc., based on present and future job and organizational requirements. This function includes:

i. Performance Appraisal: It is the systematic evaluation of individuals with respect to their performance on the job and their potential for development. It includes:
a. Developing policies, procedures and techniques.
ii. Training: It is the process of imparting to the employees technical and operating skills and knowledge. It includes:
a. Identification of training needs of the individuals and the company.
b. Developing suitable training programmes.
iii. Management Development: It is the process of designing and conducting suitable executive development programmes so as to develop the managerial and human relations skill of employees. It includes:
a. Identification of the areas in which management development is needed.
b. Conducting development programmes.
iv. Career Planning and Development: It is the planning of one’s career and implementation of career plans by means of education, training, job search and acquisition of work experiences. It includes internal and external mobility.
v. Internal Mobility: It includes vertical and horizontal movement of an employee within an organization. It consists of transfer, promotion and demotion.
vi. Transfer: It is the process of placing employees in the same level jobs where they can be utilized more effectively in consistence with their potentialities and needs of the employees and the organization. It also deals with:
• Developing transfer policies and procedures.
• Guiding employees and line management on transfers.
v. Promotion: It deals with upward reassignment given to an employee in the organization to occupy higher position which commands better status and/or pay keeping in view the human resources of the employees and the job requirements.
vi. Demotion: It deals with downward reassignment to an employee in the organization.
vii. Retention and Retrenchment Management: Employers prefer to retain more talented employees while they retrench less talented employees. Employers modify existing human resource strategies and craft new strategies in order to pay more salaries provide more benefits and create high quality of work life to retain the best employees. And managements pay less to the less talented employees and plan to retrench the misfits as well as unwanted employees depending upon the negative business trends.
viii. Change and Organisation Development: Change implies the creation of imbalances in the existent pattern or situation. Organisation development is a planned process designed process designed to improve organizational effectiveness and health through modifications in individual and group behaviour, culture and systems of the organization using knowledge and technology of applied behavioural sciences.
3. Compensation: It is the process of providing adequate and fair remuneration to the employees. It includes job evaluation, wage and salary administration, incentives, bonus, fringe benefits, social security measures etc.
i. Job Evaluation: It is the process of determining relative worth of jobs.
• Select suitable job evaluation techniques.
• Classify jobs into various categories.
• Determining relative value of jobs in various categories.
ii. Wage and Salary Administration: This is the process of developing and
operating a suitable wage and salary programme.
It covers:
• Conducting wage and salary survey.
• Determining wage and salary rates based on various factors. Administering wage and salary programmes.
• Evaluating its effectiveness.

iii. Incentives: It is the process of formulating, administering and revising the
schemes of financial incentives in addition to regular payment of wages
and salary. It includes:
• Formulating incentive payment schemes.
• Helping functional managers on the operation.
• Review them periodically to evaluate effectiveness.
iv. Bonus: It includes payment of statutory bonus according to the Payment of
Bonus Act, 1965 and its latest amendments:
v. Fringe Benefits: These are the various benefits at the fringe of the wage.
Management provides these benefits to motivate the employees and to meet
their life’s contingencies. These benefits include:
• Disablement benefit.
• Housing facilities.
• Educational facilities to employees and children.
• Canteen facilities.
• Recreational facilities.
• Conveyance facilities.
• Credit facilities.
• Legal clinics.
• Medical, maternity and welfare facilities.
• Company stores.
vi. Social Security Measures: Managements provide social security to their employees in addition to the fringe benefits. These measures include:
• Workmen’s compensation to those workers (or their dependents) who involve in accidents.
• Maternity benefits to women employees.
• Sickness benefits and medical benefits.
• Disablement benefits/allowance.
• Dependent benefits.
• Retirement benefits like provident fund, pension, gratuity etc.
4. Human Relations: Practicing various human resources policies and programmes like employment, development and compensation and interaction among employees create a sense of relationship between the individual worker and management, among workers and trade unions and the management.
It is the process of interaction among human beings. Human relations is an area of management in integrating people into work situations in a way that motivates them to work together productively, co-operatively and with economic, psychological and social satisfaction. It includes:
• Understanding and applying the models of perception, personality, learning, intra and inter-personal relations, intra and inter-group relations.
• Motivating the employees.
• Boosting employee morale.
• Developing the communication skills.
• Developing the leadership skills.
• Redressing employee grievances properly and in time b means of a well formulated grievance procedure.
• Handling disciplinary cases by means of an established disciplinary procedure.
• Counseling the employees in solving their personal, family and work problems and releasing their stress, strain and tensions.
• Providing a comfortable work environment by reducing fatigue, monotony boredom and industrial accidents.
• Improving quality of work life of employees through participation and other means.
5. Industrial Relations: The term ‘industrial relations’ refers to the study of relations among employees, employers, government and trade unions. Industrial relations include:
• Indian labour market
• Trade unionism
• Collective bargaining
• Industrial conflicts
• Workers’ participation in management and
• Quality circles.
6. Recent Trends in HRM: Human Resources Management has been advancing at a fast rate. The recent trends in HRM include:
• Quality of work life
• Total quality in human resources
• HR accounting, audit and research and
• Recent techniques of HRM.

SEOPE OF HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT

The scope of human resources management in the modern days is vast. In fact, the scope of HRM was limited to employment and maintenance of and payment of wage and salary. The scope gradually enlarged to providing welfare facilities, motivation, performance appraisal, human resources management, maintenance of human relations, strategic human resources and the like. The scope has been continuously enlarging.
The scope of Human Resources Management includes:
• Objectives of HRM
• Organisation of HRM
• Strategic HRM
• Employment
• Development
• Wage and salary administration/compensation
• Maintenance
• Motivation
• Industrial relations
• Participative management and
• Recent developments in HRM.
Having discussed the scope of human resources management, now we shall discuss the importance of human resources manage4ment.

IMPORTANCE OF HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT

Human resources play a crucial role in the development process of modern economics. Arthur Lewis observed, “there are great differences in development countries which seem to have roughly equal resources, so it is necessary to enquire into the difference in human behaviour.” It is often felt that though the exploitation of natural resources, availability of physical and financial resources and international aid play prominent roles in the growth of modern economies, none of these factors is more significant than efficient and committed manpower. It is in fact said that all development comes from the human mind.

Human Resources in the Nation’s Well-being
A nation with abundance of physical resources will not benefit itself unless human resources make use of them. In fact, human resources with right attitude are solely responsible for making use of national resources and for the transformation of traditional economies into the modern industrial and knowledge economies.

Man Vis-à-vis Machine
Most of the problems in organizational sectional sections are human and social rather than physical, technical or economic. No industry can be rendered efficient, so long as the basic fact remains unrecognized that it is principally human. It is not a mass of machines and technical processes but a body of men.

HRM and General Management
Management of an organisational in modern economies is not only complex and sophisticated but it is also vital influencing the economic growth of a country.
One of the fundamental tasks of management is to manage human resources in the service of the economic objectives of the enterprise. Successful management depends not solely, but significantly upon the ability to predict and control human behaviour.

ROLE OF HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT

Human Resources Management plays the most crucial role in the management of an organization. Human resources play crucial role in the conversion process of inputs. Product design, quality maintenance, rendering services etc., depend upon the efficiency of human resources. Similarly, human resources plays critical role in marketing the products and services. Human resource also plays significant role in managing finances and managing information systems.

OBJECTIVES OF HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT

Objectives are pre-determined goals to which individual or group activity in an organization is directed. Objectives of HRM are influenced by social objectives, organizational objectives, functional objectives and individual objectives. Institutions are instituted to attain certain specific objectives. The objectives of the economic institutions are mostly to earn profits, and that educational institutions are mostly to impart education and/or conduct research so on and so forth. However, the fundamental objective of any organization is survival. Organizations are not just satisfied with this goal. Further, the goal of most of the organisations is growth and/or profits.

The objectives of HRM may be as follows:
i. to create and utilize able and motivated workforce, to accomplish the basic organizational goals.
ii. to establish and maintain sound organizational structure and desirable working relationships among all the members of the organization.
iii. to secure the integration of individual and groups within the organization by co-ordination of the individual and group goals with those of the organization.
iv. to create facilities and opportunities for individual or group development so as to match it with the growth of the organization.
v. to attain an effective utilization of human resources in the achievement of organizational goals.
vi. to identify and satisfy individual and group needs by providing adequate and equitable wages, incentives , employee benefits and social security and measures for challenging work, prestige, recognition, security, status etc.

HRM Objectives at Wipro

• To respect the individual, as people are the greatest assets.
• To govern individual and company relationships with the highest standard of conduct and integrity.
• To be close to the customer through employees.
• To achieve and maintain leadership in people management.

HRM Policies, Procedures and Programmes

After the establishment of objectives of HRM, human resources policies are to be formulated Policies are general statements that guide thinking and action in decision-making.

Definition of HRM Policy

A Policy is a plan of action. Brewster and Richbell defined HRM policies as, “set of proposals and actions that act as a reference point for managers in their dealings with employees”. “HR polices constitute guides to action. They furnish the general standards or bases on which decisions are reached. Their genesis lies in an organisation”s values, philosophy, concepts and principles”. HR policies guide the course of action intended to accomplish personnel objectives.

What is HRM Procedure?

Policies are general instructions whereas procedures are specific applications. A procedure is a well thought out course of action. It prescribes the specific manner in which a piece of work is to be done. Procedures are called “action guidelines.” They are generally derived from policies. Where policies define a broad field, procedures show a sequence of activities within that area. The emphasis is on chronological, step-by-step sequence of required actions. For instance, a student is required to complete several itemized steps in order to register himself to complete several itemized steps for courses in a university. The basic purpose of a procedure is to spell out clearly the way one is to go about doing something.

ROLE OF HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGER

Human Resources Manager plays a vital role in the modern organization. He plays various strategic roles at different levels in the organization. Te roles of the HR Manager include roles of conscience, of a counselor, a mediator, a company spokesman, a problem solver and a change agent.

i. The Conscience Role: The conscience role is that of a humanitarian who reminds the management of its morals and obligations to its employees.
ii. The Counsellor: Employees who are dissatisfied with the present job approach the HR manager for counseling. In addition, employees facing various problems like marital, health, children education/marriage, mental, physical and career also approach the HR managers. The HR Manager counsels and consults the employees and offers suggestions to solve/overcome the problems.
iii. The Mediator: As a mediator, the HR manager plays the role of a peace-maker. He settles the disputes between employees and the management. He acts as a liaison and communication link between both
iv. The Spokesman: He is a frequent spokesman for of representative of the company.
v. The Problem-solver: He acts as a problem solver with respect to the issues that involve human resources management an overall long range organizational planning.
vi. The Change Agent: He acts as a change agent and introduces changes in various existing programmes.

JOB DESIGN

Job design is defined as the process of deciding on the content of a job in terms of duties and responsibilities of the jobholders; on the methods to be used in carrying out the job, in terms of techniques, systems and procedures and on the relationships that should exist between the job holder and his superiors, subordinates and colleagues. Factor affecting job design include organizational factors, environmental factors and behavioural factors. Two important goals of job design:(I) to meet the organizational requirements such as higher productivity, operational efficiency, quality of product/service etc., and (II) to satisfy the needs of the individual employees like interests, challenges, achievement or accomplishment etc. Finally, the goal of the job design is to integrate the needs of the individual with the organizational requirements.

Approaches to job Design

There are three important approaches to job design viz.,
(i) engineering approach
(ii) human approach and
(iii) job characteristics approach.

i. Engineering Approach: This approach which studies the work scientifically is based on scientific management principles. These principles seem to be quite rational and appealing as they point towards increased organizational performance.
ii. Human Approach: Human relations approach to job design recognizes the need to design the jobs which are interesting and rewarding.
iii. Job Characteristics Approach: This approach assumes that employees will work hard when they are rewarded for the work they do and when the work gives them satisfaction. Therefore, motivation, satisfaction and performance should be integrated in the job design. Jobs with skill variety, task identity, task significance, autonomy and feedback are called core job dimensions. Core job dimensions will motivate the employees and result in job satisfaction and high performance.

Job Rotation
Job rotation refers to the movement of an employee from one job to another. Jobs themselves are not actually changed, only the employees are rotated among various jobs. An employee who works on a routine/respective job moves to and works on another job for some hours/days/months and backs up to the first job. This measure relieves the employee from boredom and monotony, improves employee’s skills regarding various jobs, prepares the competent employees and provides competitive advantage to the company These measures also improves worker’s self-image and provides personal growth. However, frequent job rotations are not advisable in view of their negative impact on the orgsnisation and the employee.

Job Enlargement
Job enlargement means adding more and different tasks to a specialized job to provide greater variety. This process is called horizontal job loading or horizontal job enlargement. Job enlargement is a horizontal slice of the organization. It tackles dissatisfaction and reduces monotony by increasing the variety and scope of tasks. This technique leads to specialization, it improves worker satisfaction, quality of production and overall efficiency of the organization.

Job Enrichment
Job enrichment loads the job vertically. Job enrichment means adding duties and responsibilities that will provide for skill variety, task identity, task significance, autonomy and feedback on job performance. It tries to deal with dissatisfaction by increasing job depth as work activities from a vertical slice of the organizational unit are combined in one job. As work becomes more challenging and worker responsibility increases, motivation and enthusiasm also increase. Dale S. Beach has suggested specific action steps for designing enriched jobs.
They are:
i. creation of natural or logical work units,
ii. combining several duties, requiring various skills into each job,
iii. the employee should have direct contact and knowledge about the people for whom his product is meant,
iv. vertical job loading is to incorporate some planning and controlling duties into the job and
v. Feedback information should be provided to employees to correct and improve their performance.

JOB ANALYSIS

Procurement is the first operative function of personnel management, which can be sub-divided into various sub-functions like human resources planning, recruitment and selection. Management should determine the kind of personnel required for a job and the number of persons to be employed. The organization should also find out the right man for the right job in the right time. The knowledge of the job is essential to perform these functions.
In addition, establishment of the scientific standard in advance is comparing the applicants with the job and to select the suitable personnel. This standard stipulates the minimum acceptable qualifications, skills and qualities required for adequate job performance. Stipulating the standard requires the knowledge regarding job design, study of the job duties and responsibilities, requirements of the job, human abilities and qualities etc. job analyst is needed to know al these functions and to perform various functions of HRM.
Job Terminology: Description of technical terminology is highly necessary in order to facilitate the study of a job analysis. So, it is desirable to define the terms related to job analysis like task, position, job, occupation, job analysis, job description, job specification and job classification.
Task: A task is an action or related group of action designed to produce a definite outcome or result.
Position: A position is a group of similar tasks and responsibilities assigned to one individual. The term is used in this narrow technical sense to facilitate more precise discussion of the job analysis technique.
Job: A job is “a group of positions that are similar as to the kind and level of work.” In some instances, only one position may be involved, simply because no other similar position exists. For example, in the small firm the position of personnel manager also constitutes a job since there is only one personnel manager position in the organization. Further, there may be six employees, “all of whom are classified under the same title, yet each may perform slightly different work.” For example, there may be five or six cashiers in a large commercial balk branch who may do different work.
Occupation: An occupation “is a group of jobs that are similar as to the kind of work land are found throughout an industry or the entire country.” An occupation is la category of work found in many firms.
Job Analysis: The U.S. Department of Labour defined job analysis as “the process of determining, by observation and study and reporting pertinent information relating to the nature of a specific job. It is the determination of the tasks which comprise the job and of the skills, knowledge, abilities and responsibilities required of the worker of a successful performance and which differentiate one job from all others.”

The aspects of job analysis include job description and job specification as shown Fig
Job Analysis
i. Job Description
ii. Job Specification
Job Description: A job description is “an organized, factual statement of the duties and responsibilities of a specific job.” In brief, it should tell what is to be done, how it is done and why? It is a standard of function, in that it defines the appropriate and authorized content of a job.
Job Specification: A job specification is “a statement of the minimum acceptable human qualities necessary to perform a job properly.” In contrast to the job description, it is a standard of personnel and designates the qualities required for acceptable performance.
Job Classification: A job classification is “a grouping of jobs on some specified basis such as the kind of work or pay.” For example, a clerk, a teacher, an engineer, a chemist etc.

Process of job Analysis
Job can be analysed through a process, which consists of seven basic steps. These steps consist of strategies, a collection of background information, selection of background information, selection of job to be analysed, collection of job analysis data, developing a job description, job specification and employee specification.
i. Strategies: The strategies of the company are the basis for any organizational activity including job analysis. If the strategy implementation needs innovative skills and autonomy, they should be included in the job analysis.
According to William P. Anthony the companies have to make four strategic choices viz.
• The extent of employee involvement in job analysis
• The level of details of job analysis
• Timing and frequency of analysis and
• Past-oriented vs. future-oriented job analysis.

ii. Collection of Background Information: Background information consists of organization charts class specifications and existing job descriptions. Organization charts show the relation of the job with other jobs in the overall organizations. Class-specifications describe the general requirements of the class of job to which this particular job belongs. The existing job description provides a good starting point for job analysis.
iii. Selection of Representative Position to be analysed: It would be too difficult and too time consuming to analyse all the jobs. So, the job analyst has to select some of the representative positions in order to analyse them.
iv. Collection of job Analysis Data: This step involves actually analyzing a job by collecting data on features of the job, required employee behaviour and human requirements.
v. Developing a job Description: This step involves describing the contents of the job in terms of functions, duties, responsibilities, operations etc. The incumbent of the job is expected to discharge the duties and responsibilities and perform the functions and operations listed in job description.
vi. Developing a job Specification: This step involves conversion of the job description statements into a job specification. Job specification or job requirements describe the personal qualities, traits, skills, knowledge and background necessary for getting the job done.
vii. Developing Employee Specification: This final step involves conversion of specifications of human qualities under job specification into an employee specification. Employee specification describes physical qualification, educational qualifications, experience etc., which specify that the candidate with these qualities possesses the minimum human qualities listed in the job specification.

JOB DESCRIPTLION

Job description is an important document which is basically descriptive in nature and contains a statement of job analysis. It serves to identify a job for consideration by other job analysts. It tells us what should be done, why it should be done, and where it should be performed.

Characteristics of Good job Description
Earnest Dale developed the following hints for writing the job description:
(i) The job description should indicate the scope and nature of the work including all important relationships.
(ii) The job description should be clear regarding the work of the position, duties etc.
(iii) More specific words should be selected to show (a) the kind of work, (b) the degree of complexity, (c) the degree of skill required, (d) the extent t which problems are standardized, (e) the extent of worker’s responsibility for each phase of the work and (f) the degree and type of accountability. Action words such as analyse, gather, plan, confirm deliver, maintain, supervise and recommend should be used.
(iv) Supervisory responsibility should be shown to the incumbents.
Brief and accurate statements should be used in order to accomplish the purpose.
(v) Utility of the description in meeting the basic requirements should be checked from the extent of understanding the job by reading the job description by a new employee

The Content of Job Description

The job description normally contains the information on the following lines:
• Job title
• Organizational location of the job
• Supervision given and received
• Materials, tools, machinery and equipment worked with
• Designation of the immediate superiors and subordinates
• Salary levels: Pay , D.A., other allowances, bonus, incentive wage, method of payment, hours of work, shift and break
• Complete list of duties to e performed separated according to daily, weekly, monthly and casual, estimated time to be spent on each duty
• Definition of unusual terms
• Conditions of work: location, time, speed of work, accuracy, health hazards and accident hazards
• Training and development facilities and
• Promotional chances and channels.

JOB SPECIFICATION

It is a written statement of qualifications, traits, physical and mental characteristics that an individual must possess to perform the job duties and discharge responsibilities effectively.

Job Specification Information
The first step in the programme of job specification is to prepare a list of all the jobs in the company and where they are located. The second step is to secure and write up the information about each of the jobs in a company. Usually, this information includes:

i. physical specifications,
ii. mental specifications,
iii. emotional and social specifications and
iv. behavioural specifications.
i. Physical specifications: Physical specifications include the physical qualifications or physical capacities which vary from job to job. Physical qualifications or capacities include physical features like height, weight, chest, vision, hearing, ability to lift weight, ability to carry weight, health, age, capacity to use or operate machines, tools equipment etc.
ii. Mental specifications: Mental specifications include ability to perform, arithmetical calculations to interpret data, information blueprints, to read electrical circuits, ability to plan, reading abilities, scientific abilities, judgment, ability to concentrate, ability to handle variable factors, general intelligence, memory etc.
iii. Emotional and social specifications: Emotional and social specifications are more important for the post of managers, supervisors, foremen etc. These include emotional stability, flexibility, social adaptability in human relationship, personal appearance including dress, posture, poise, features and voice required by the job.
iv. Behavioural specifications: Behavioural specifications play an important role in selecting the candidates for higher level jobs in the organizational hierarchy. This specification seeks to describe the acts of managers rather than the traits that cause the acts. These specifications include judgments, research, creativity, teaching ability, maturity (capable of accepting responsibility) trial of conciliation, self-reliance (self-starter sticks to own decisions), dominance (giving orders in a personal way) etc.

MEANING AND OND OBJECTIVES OF HUMAN RESOURCES PLANNING

In simple terms, human resource planning means deciding the number and type of the human resources required for each job, unit and the total company for a particular future date in order to carry our organizational activities.
E.W. Vetter viewed human resources planning as “a process by which an organization should move from its current manpower position to its desired manpower position. Through planning management, strive to have the right number and right kind of people at the right place at the right time, doing things which result in both the organization and the individual receiving maximum long-run benefit.”

Objectives of Human Resources Planning
The important objectives of manpower planning in an organization are(i) to recruit and retain the human resources of required quantity and quality: (ii) to foresee the employee turnover and make the arrangements for minimizing turnover and filling up of consequent vacancies: (iii) to meet the needs of the programmes of expansion, diversification etc.: (iv) to foresee the impact of technology on work, existing employees and future human resource requirements: (v) to improve the standards, skill, knowledge, ability, discipline etc.; (vi) to assess the surplus of shortage of human resources and take measures accordingly; (vii) to maintain congenial industrial relations by maintaining optimum level and structure of human resources; (viii) to minimize imbalances caused due to non-availability of human resources of the right kind, right number in right time and right place; (ix) to make the best use of its human resources and (x) to estimate the cost of human resources.

BENEFITS OF HUMAN RESOURCES PLANNING

Human Resources Planning (HRP) anticipates not only the required kind and number of employees but also determines the action plan for all the functions of personnel management. The major benefits of human resources planning are:
• It checks the corporate plan of the organization.
• It offsets uncertainty and change. But the HRP offsets uncertainties and changes to the maximum extent possible and enables the organization to have right men at the right time and in the right place.
• It provides scope for advancement and development of employees training, development etc.

FACTORS AFFECTING HUMAN RESOURCE PLAN

Several factors affect HRP. These factors can be classified into external factors and internal factors.
External Factors
External Factors include:
(i) Government Policies: Policies of the government like labour policy, industrial relations policy, policy towards reserving certain jobs for different communities and sons-of the-soil etc.,
(ii) Level of Economic Development: Level of economic development determines the level of HRD in the country and thereby the supply of human resources in the future in the country.
(iii) Business Environment: External business environmental factors influence the volume and mix of production and thereby the future demand for human resources.
(iv) Information Technology: Information technology bought amazing shifts in the way how do businesses operate? These shifts include business process reengineering, enterprise resources planning and supply drain management. These changes brought unprecedented reductions in traditional human resources and increase in software specialists. However, these changes reduced the demand for even software specialists at a latter stage. Added to this, the computer-aided design (CAD) and computer-aided technology (CAT) also reduced the existing human resources.
(v) Level of Technology: Level of technology determines the kind of human resources required.
(vi) International Factors: International factors like the demand for and supply of human resources in various countries.

Internal Factors

Internal Factors affecting HRP include:
(i) Company strategies: Company’s polices and strategies relating to expansion, diversification, alliances etc. determine the human resources demand in terms of quality and quality.
(ii) Human resources policies: Human resources policies of the company regarding quality of human resources, compensation level, quality of work life etc. influence human resources plan.
(iii) Job Analysis: Fundamentally, human resources plan is based on job analysis, job description and job specification. Thus, the job analysis determines the kind of employees required.
(iv) Time horizons: Companies with a stable competitive environment can plan for the long run, whereas firms with and unstable competitive environment can plan for only short-term range. Exhibit 4.2 presents the degree of uncertainty and length of the planning period.
(v) Type and quality of information: Any planning process needs qualitative and accurate information. This is more s with human resources plan. Exhibit 4.3 presents HRP information.
(vi) Company’s production/operations policy: Company’s policy regarding how much to produce and how much to buy from outside to prepare a final product influences the number and kind of people required.
(vii) Trade unions: Influence of trade unions regarding the number of working hours per week, recruitment sources etc., and affect HRP.

The Human Resource Information System (HRIS)

The Human Resource Information System (HRIS) is a software or online solution for the data entry, data tracking, and data information needs of the Human Resources, payroll, management, and accounting functions within a business. Normally packaged as a data base, hundreds of companies sell some form of HRIS and every HRIS has different capabilities. Pick your HRIS carefully based on the capabilities you need in your company.

The Human Resource Information Systems (HRIS) provide:

Management of all employee information.
Reporting and analysis of employee information.
Company-related documents such as employee handbooks, emergency evacuation procedures, and safety guidelines.
Benefits administration including enrollment, status changes, and personal information updating.
Complete integration with payroll and other company financial software and accounting systems.
Applicant and resume management.

The HRIS that most effectively serves companies tracks:

attendance,
pay raises and history,
pay grades and positions held,
performance development plans,
training received,
disciplinary action received,
personal employee information, and occasionally,
management and key employee succession plans,
high potential employee identification, and
applicant tracking, interviewing, and selection.

An effective HRIS provides information on just about anything the company needs to track and analyze about employees, former employees, and applicants. Your company will need to select a Human Resources Information System and customize it to meet your needs.

With an appropriate HRIS, Human Resources staff enables employees to do their own benefits updates and address changes, thus freeing HR staff for more strategic functions. Additionally, data necessary for employee management, knowledge development, career growth and development, and equal treatment is facilitated. Finally, managers can access the information they need to legally, ethically, and effectively support the success of their reporting employees.

Strategic HR Planning

Strategic HR planning is an important component of strategic HR management. It links HR management directly to the strategic plan of your organization. Most mid- to large sized organizations have a strategic plan that guides it in successfully meeting its mission. Organizations routinely complete financial plans to ensure they achieve organizational goals and while workforce plans are not as common, they are just as important.

Strategic HR management is defined as:
Integrating human resource management strategies and systems to achieve the overall mission, strategies, and success of the firm while meeting the needs of employees and other stakeholders.

Introduction to strategic HR planning

The overall purpose of strategic HR planning is to:
Ensure adequate human resources to meet the strategic goals and operational plans of your organization – the right people with the right skills at the right time
Keep up with social, economic, legislative and technological trends that impact on human resources in your area and in the sector
Remain flexible so that your organization can manage change if the future is different than anticipated. Strategic HR planning predicts the future HR management needs of the organization after analyzing the organization’s current human resources, the external labour market and the future HR environment that the organization will be operating in.

The strategic HR planning process

The strategic HR planning process has four steps:
Assessing the current HR capacity
Forecasting HR requirements
Gap analysis
Developing HR strategies to support organizational strategies

Assessing current HR capacity

Based on the organization’s strategic plan, the first step in the strategic HR planning process is to assess the current HR capacity of the organization. The knowledge, skills and abilities of your current staff need to be identified. This can be done by developing a skills inventory for each employee.

Forecasting HR requirements

The next step is to forecast HR needs for the future based on the strategic goals of the organization. Realistic forecasting of human resources involves estimating both demand and supply.

Gap analysis

The next step is to determine the gap between where your organization wants to be in the future and where you are now. The gap analysis includes identifying the number of staff and the skills and abilities required in the future in comparison to the current situation

Developing HR strategies to support organizational strategies

There are five HR strategies for meeting your organization’s needs in the future:
Restructuring strategies
Training and development strategies
Recruitment strategies
Outsourcing strategies
Collaboration strategies

1. Restructuring strategies

This strategy includes:
Reducing staff either by termination or attrition
Regrouping tasks to create well designed jobs
Reorganizing work units to be more efficient

2. Training and development strategies

This strategy includes:
Providing staff with training to take on new roles
Providing current staff with development opportunities to prepare them for future jobs in your organization

3. Recruitment strategies

This strategy includes:
Recruiting new staff with the skill and abilities that your organization will need in the future
Considering all the available options for strategically promoting job openings and encouraging suitable candidates to apply.

4. Outsourcing strategies

This strategy includes:
Using external individuals or organizations to complete some tasks

Many organizations look outside their own staff pool and contract for certain skills. This is particularly helpful for accomplishing specific, specialized tasks that don’t require ongoing full-time work.

5. Collaboration strategies

Finally, the strategic HR planning process may lead to indirect strategies that go beyond your organization. By collaborating with other organizations you may have better success at dealing with a shortage of certain skills.

UNIT – 2

RECRUITMENT & SELECTION

Introduction to Recruitment:

Once the required number and the kind of human resources are determined, the management has to find the places where required human resources are/will be available and also work out strategies for attracting them towards the organization before selecting suitable candidates for jobs. This process is generally known as recruitment. Some people use the term ‘recruitment’ for employment. These two are not one and the same. Recruitment is only one of the steps in the entire employment process. Some others use the term recruitment for selection. These two terms are different. Technically speaking, the function of recruitment precedes the selection function and it includes only finding, developing the sources of prospective employees and attracting them to apply for jobs in an organization, whereas the selection is the process of finding out the most suitable candidate to the job out of the candidates attracted(i.e., recruited).

Recruitment Definition:

Recruitment is defined as “a process to discover the sources of manpower to meet the requirements of the staffing schedule and to employ effective measures for attracting that manpower in adequate numbers to facilitate effective selection of an efficient workforce.” Edwin B.Flippo defined recruitment as “the process of searching for prospective employees and stimulating them to apply for jobs in the organization.” These definitions can be analyzed by discussing the processes of recruitment through systems approach.

Objectives of Recruitment
The objectives of recruitment are:
i. To attract people with multi-dimensional skills and experiences that suit the present and future organizational strategies,
ii. To induct outsiders with a new perspective to lead the company,
iii. To infuse fresh blood at all levels of the organization,
iv. To develop an organizational culture that attracts competent people to the company,
v. To search or head hunt/head pouch people whose skills fit the company’s values,
vi. To devise methodologies for assessing psychological traits,
vii. To seek out non-conventional development grounds of talent,
viii. To search for talent globally and not just within the company,
ix. To design entry pay that competes on quality but not on quantum,
x. To anticipate and find people for positions that does not exist yet.

Employee Recruitment Methods: Recruitment can be in two different ways

●Internal recruitment is when the business looks to fill the vacancy from within its existing workforce.
●External recruitment is when the business looks to fill the vacancy from any suitable applicant outside the business.

Internal Recruitment Sources:

They include those who are employed in the organisation or those who were in the past employ (but quit voluntarily or due to retrenchment) and would return if the organisation likes to re-employ. The advantage in looking for internal resources is that they provide opportunities for better deployment and utilisation of existing human resources through planned placements and transfers. It will also motivate people through planned promotions and career development when vacancies exist in higher grades. The law provides preferences to retrenched employees when vacancies arise in future.

Internal recruitment methods are not only cost efficient, they also support employee satisfaction and moral. Before looking outside of the company for talent, take the time to look at the current employees. Nothing causes more dissatisfaction than having someone new take the position that an employee has been working to get promoted to. Promoting within requires less training and transition. Here are two ways to accomplish this:

Job postings – post open positions for employees to apply for before external hires are considered.
Skills inventory – have HR keep a record of employee skills. Review the inventory to identify any employees that might qualify for the job. Invite them to apply.

Internal Recruitment – Advantages
1. Cheaper and quicker to recruit
2. People already familiar with the business and how it operates
3. Provides opportunities for promotion with in the business – can be motivating
4. Business already knows the strengths and weaknesses of candidates
Disadvantages :
1.Limits the number of potential applicants
2.No new ideas can be introduced from outside the business
3.May cause resentment amongst candidates not appointed
4.Creates another vacancy which needs to be filled

External Recruitment

The External Recruitment is the source of the fresh blood for the organization. As a very critical HR Process, the external recruitment process has to be set up very carefully. The external recruitment is a process, which is very sensitive to changes on the external market and the managers are very sensitive about that as well.

The most popular ways of recruiting externally are:

Job centres – These are paid for by the government and are responsible for helping the unemployed find jobs or get training. They also provide a service for businesses needing to advertise a vacancy and are generally free to use.

Job advertisements – Advertisements are the most common form of external recruitment. They can be found in many places (local and national newspapers, notice boards, recruitment fairs) and should include some important information relating to the job (job title, pay package, location, job description, how to apply-either by CV or application form). Where a business chooses to advertise will depend on the cost of advertising and the coverage needed (i.e. how far away people will consider applying for the job

Recruitment agency – Provides employers with details of suitable candidates for a vacancy and can sometimes be referred to as ‘head-hunters’. They work for a fee and often specialise in particular employment areas e.g. nursing, financial services, teacher recruitment

Personal recommendation – Often referred to as ‘word of mouth’ and can be a recommendation from a colleague at work. A full assessment of the candidate is still needed however but potentially it saves on advertising cost.

Unsolicited applicants – most business will have unsolicited resumes. Make sure these resumes are kept and filed. Review these before beginning to advertise. The right candidate might very well be in that file.

Events – job fairs, open houses. These are costly to run but can produce excellent results. The number of positions available can best determine if it is worth the investment.

Campus Placements – co-op programs and job placement programs are a great way to bring in new employees. Contact local colleges or universities to see if there is an opportunity to work together.

Modern Sources of Recruitment

A number of modern recruitment sources are being used by the corporate sector in addition to traditional sources.

Employee Referrals: Present employees are well aware of the qualifications, attitudes, experience and emotions of their friends and relatives. They are also aware of the job requirements and organizational culture of their company. As such, they can make preliminary judgment regarding the match between the job and their friends or relatives.
Hence, the HR managers of various companies depend on the present employees for reference of the candidates for various jobs. This source reduces the cost and time required for recruitment. Further, this source enhances the effectiveness 9of recruitment. HR managers offer various incentives/rewards including cash incentives to the current employees for referring the best candidates.
Modern external sources include: Walk in and consult in, head-hunting, body-shopping, mergers and acquisitions, tele-recruitment and outsourcing.
(i) Walk-in: The busy organizations and the rapid changing companies do not find time to perform various functions of recruitment. Therefore, they advise the potential candidates to attend for an interview directly and without a prior application on a specified date, time and at a specified place. The suitable candidates from among the interviewees will be selected for appointment after screening the candidates through tests and interviews.
(ii) Consult-in: The busy and dynamic companies encourage the potential job seekers to approach them personally and consult them regarding the jobs. The companies select the suitable candidates from among such candidates through the selection process.
(iii) Head-hunting: The companies request the professional organizations to search for the best candidates particularly for the senior executive positions. The professional organizations search for the most suitable candidates and advise the company regarding the filling up of the positions. Head-hunters are also called ‘search consultants’.
(iv) Body shopping: Professional organizations and the hi-tech training institutes develop the pool of human resources for the possible employment. The prospective employers contact these organizations to recruit the candidates. Otherwise, the organizations themselves approach the prospective employers to place their human resources. These professional and training institutions are called ‘body shoppers’ and these shopping is also known as employee leasing activity. The leasing firms employ the people and lease them for the use by various needy companies for payment of a commission.
(v) Mergers & Acquisitions: Business alliances like acquisitions, mergers, and take-overs help in getting human resources. In addition, the companies do also have alliances in sharing their human resources on ad-hoc basis.
It does mean that the company with surplus human resources offers the services of their employees to other needy organizations.
(vi) E-Recruitment: The technological revolution in telecommunications helped the organizations to use internet as a source of recruitment. Organizations advertise the job vacancies through the World Wide Web (www). The job seekers send their applications through e-mail using the Internet. Alternatively, job seekers place their CVs in the world wide web/internet, which can be drawn by the prospective employers depending upon their requirements.

External Recruitment Sources: Organisations may look for people outside it. Entry level jobs are usually filled by new entrants from outside. Also in the following circumstances organisations may resort to outside sources:
a. when suitably qualified people are not available.
b. when the organisation feels it necessary to impart new blood for fresh ideas.
c. when it is diversifying into new avenues and
d. when it is merging with another organisation.

External Recruitment – Advantages
Outside people bring in new ideas
Larger pool of workers from which to find the best candidate
People have a wider range of experience
Disadvantages :
Longer process
More expensive process due to advertisements and interviews required
Selection process may not be effective enough to reveal the best candidate

Recruitment Strategies: The recruitment strategies formulated by the companies include:
In-sourcing or Outsourcing: Companies recruit the candidates, employ them, train and develop them and utilize the human resources of these candidates. This strategy is called ‘in-sourcing’. Companies formulate and implement this strategy when the company’s growth is stable. Some organizations employ and develop the candidates with a view to provide the human resources to other companies which concentrate on manufacturing, servicing and such other activities. Some manufacturing and service companies depend for their human resource requirements on such external organizations whose core business is to provide human resources. This strategy is called ‘outsourcing’. Most of the IT companies follow this strategy. Even manufacturing companies also depend on outsourcing for the running the non-core business like canteens, hospitals, office maintenance, security, house-keeping, plant maintenance etc. outsourcing strategy is more suitable for both the fast growing and diversifying companies.

Vast and Fast Source: The fast developing IT industry and high technology oriented industry invariably require vast human resources within the short span of time. The best strategy to get vast human resources immediately is through internet.

Recruitment Policy

Recruitment policy of any organization is derived from the HR policy of the same organization. In other words, the former is a part of the latter. However, recruitment policy by itself should take into consideration the government’s reservation policy, policy
Regarding sons of soil etc., HR policies of other organizations regarding merit, internal sources, social responsibility in absorbing minority sections, women etc. recruitment policy should commit itself to the organization’s HR policy like enriching the organization’s human resources or serving the community by absorbing the weaker sections and disadvantaged people of the society, motivating the employees through internal promotions, improving the employee’s loyalty to the organization by absorbing the retrenched or laid-of employees or casual/temporary employees or dependents of present/former employees etc.

Limitations for Recruitment – Challenges:

1. Child Labour (Prohibition and Regulation ) Act, 1986: This Act replaces the Employment of Children Act, 138, and seeks to prohibit the engagement of children below 14 years of age in certain employment and to regulate the conditions of work of children in certain other employment. Penalties for contravening the provisions are fine and imprisonment.

2. The Employment Exchanges (Compulsory Notification of Vacancies) Act, 1959:
The Act requires all employers to notify vacancies (with certain exemptions) occurring in their establishments to the prescribed employment exchanges before they are filled

3. The Apprentices Act, 1961: The Act seeks to provide for the regulation and control of training apprentices and for matters connected therewith. The Act provides for a machinery to lay down syllabi and prescribe period of training, reciprocal obligations for apprentices and employers etc. The responsibility for engagement of apprentices lies solely with the employer. An apprentice is not a workman.

4. The Contract Labour (Regulation and Abolition) Act, 1970: This Act seeks to regulate the employment of contract labour in certain establishments and to provide for the abolition in certain circumstances. The Act applies to every establishment / contractor employing 20 or more persons.

5. Bonded Labour System (Abolition) Act, 1976: This Act seeks to provide for the abolition of bonded labour system with a view to preventing the economic and physical exploitation of the weaker sections of society.

6. The Inter-state Migrant Workmen Act, 1979: This Act safeguards the interests of the workmen who are recruited by contractors from one state for service in an establishment situated in another state and to guard against the exploitation of such workmen by the contractors.

7. The Factories Act, 1948, the Mines Act, 1952, etc. : Certain legislation, like the Factories Act and the Mines Act prohibit employment of women (in night work, underground work etc.) and children (below 14 years of age) in certain types of jobs.

8. Reservations for Special Groups: In pursuance of the constitutional provisions, statutory reservations and relaxed norms have been provided in education and employment to candidates belonging to Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes in central and state services including departmental undertakings, government corporations, local bodies and other quasi – government organisations. Most state governments have issued policy directives extending the reservations to notified backward communities also.

9. Sons -of -the-Soil: The question of preference to local population in the matter of employment has become more complex toady than ever before. The Govt. of India has recognised the main elements of the arguments on behalf of the sons of the soil and laid down certain principles in the matter of recruitment to its public sector projects, whose implementation, however, is left to the undertakings themselves.

10. Displaced Persons: Whenever major projects are set up, large tracts of land are acquired for the purpose, displacing several hundred households in each case. Payment of compensation for land was at one time considered a sufficient discharge of obligation towards persons who are dispossessed of land. This alone did not solve the question of earning livelihood.

Realistic Job Preview:

A Realistic Job Preview is an approach that enables the communication of aspects of a job to prospective applicants before the applicant accepts the offer of a position.

For a RJP to be effective, it is critical to allow employees to obtain a balanced view of the positive and negative aspects of the position. Discrepancies between the applicant of the position and the actual operational requirements of the job role may lead to lower commitment levels and increased turnover. A RJP works by providing applicants with information that clarifies their expectations and allows them to have a more realistic perspective of the role. By providing a well designed and consistent RJP process to all potential employees, the organization can reduce turnover and increase commitment by allowing the employer to match job requirements with the applicant’s qualities and the applicant to match their personal needs with the position requirements and the organizational culture.

Research on the effects of utilizing a RJP has demostrated cost savings due to increased performance and job survival; decreased levels in turnover by better meeting employee expectations, improving their ability to cope, providing a perception of honesty for the organization and allowing them to self-select themselves for the position. In addition, there is also increased post-employment job satisfaction by giving them preparation to cope with the demands of the position and making them feel that the employer has been honest in their recruitment process.

Using Realistic Job Previews for recruitment

By providing applicants with an insight into the job vacancy – both the attractive and less attractive aspects of the role – many candidates decide for themselves that the job is not for them. The Realistic Job Previews (RJP) helps the applicant to really think through whether the new role is for them – whether they will fit into the organisation and enjoy the role.

The Realistic Job Preview should be used to:
Help unsuitable applicants withdraw themselves before the formal recruitment process takes place. Ensure such ‘self-elimination’ is seen in a positive, brand aligned and advisory way. These applicants may also be customers and it is important to treat them with dignity.

The benefits of Realistic Job Preview

Realistic Job Previews can help with volume recruitment by removing around 15% of applicants through clarifying and clearly stating the job requirements, thereby increasing the quality of applications received. It also reduces resignation rate of recruits and ensures candidates finally selected are likely to align well with the values and culture of the organization.

SELECTION:

Selection is a process of measurement, decision making and evaluation. The goal of a selection system is to bring in to the organisation individuals who will perform well on the job. To have an accurate and fair selection system, an organisation must use reliable and valid measures of job applicant characteristics. In addition, a good selection system must include a means of combining information about applicant characteristics in a rational way and producing correct hire and no-hire decisions. A good personnel selection system should add to the overall effectiveness of the organisation.

Organisations vary in the complexity of their selection system. Some merely skim applications blanks and conduct brief, informal interviews, whereas others take to resting, repeated interviewing, background checks and so on. Although the latter system is more costly per applicant, many benefits are realised from careful, thorough selection. An organisation needs to have members who are both skilled and motivated to perform their roles. Either such members can be identified by careful selection or attempts can be made to develop them after hire by extensive training. Thus cursory selection may greatly increase training and monitoring costs, whereas spending more on the selection process will reduce these post-hire expenses.

SELECTION PROCEDURE

Selection procedure employs several methods of collecting information about the candidate’s qualifications, experience, physical and mental ability, nature and behaviour, knowledge, aptitude and the like for judging whether a given applicant is suitable or not for the job. Therefore, the selection procedure is not a single act but is essentially a series of methods or stages by which different types of information can be secured through various selection techniques. At each step, facts may come to light which are useful for comparison with the job requirement and employee specifications.

Steps in Scientific Selection Process
(i) Job Analysis, (ii) Recruitment. (iii) Application Form, (iv) Written Examination, (v) Preliminary Interview (iv) Business Games (vii) Tests. (viii) Final Interview. (ix) Medical Examination (x) Reference Checks. (xi) Line Manager’s Decision. (xii) Job offer (xiii) Employment.
Job Analysis: Job analysis is the basis of selecting the right candidate. Every organization should finalize the job analysis, job description, job specification and employee specifications before proceeding to the next stop of selection.
Human Resource Plan: Every company plans for the required number of and kind of employees for a future date. This is the basis for recruitment function.
Recruitment: Recruitment refers to the process of searching for prospective employees and stimulating then to apply for jobs in an organization. It is the basis for the remaining techniques of the selection and the latter varies depending upon the former. It develops the applicants’ pool.
Development of Bases for Selection: The Company has to select the appropriate candidates from the applicants’ pool. The company develops or borrows the appropriate bases/techniques for screening the candidates in order to select the appropriate candidates for the jobs.
Application Form: Application Form is also known as application blank. The technique of application bank is traditional and widely accepted for securing information from the prospective candidates. It can also be used as a device to screen the candidates at the preliminary level. Many companies formulate their own style of application forms depending upon the requirement of information based on the size of the company, nature of business activities, type and level f the job etc. Information is generally required on the following items in the application forms: Personal background information, Educational attainments, Work experiences, Salary ,Personal details and References.

Written Examination: The organizations have to conduct written examination for the qualified candidates after they are screened on the basis of the application blanks so as to measure the candidate’s ability in arithmetical calculations, to know the candidates’ attitude towards the job, to measure the candidates’ aptitude, reasoning, knowledge in various disciplines, general knowledge and English language.

Preliminary Interview: The preliminary interview is to solicit necessary information from the prospective applicants and to assess the applicant’s suitability to the job. This may be conducted by an assistant in the personnel department. The information thus provided by the candidate may be related to the job or personal specifications regarding education, experience, salary expected, aptitude towards the job, age, physical appearance and other physical requirements etc. Thus, preliminary interview is useful as a process of eliminating the undesirable and unsuitable candidates. If a candidate satisfied the job requirements regarding most of the areas, he may be selected for further process. Preliminary interviews are short and known as stand-up interviews or sizing-up of the applicants or screening interviews. However, certain required amount of care is to be taken to ensure that the desirable workers are not eliminated. This interview is also useful to provide the basic information about the company to the candidate.

Business Games: Business games are widely used as a selection technique for selecting management trainees, executive trainees and managerial personnel at junior, middle and top management positions. Business games help to evaluate the applicants in the areas of decision-making identifying the potentialities, handling the situations, problem-solving skills, human relations skills etc. Participants are placed in a hypothetical work situation and are required to play the role situations in the game. The hypothesis is that the most successful candidate in the game will be the most successful one on the job.

Group Discussion: The technique of group discussion is used in order to secure further information regarding the suitability of the candidate for the job. Group discussion is a method where groups of the successful applicants are brought around a conference table and are asked to discuss either a case study or a subject-matter. The candidates in the group are required to analyses, discuss, find alternative solutions and select the sound solution. A selection panel then observes the candidates in the areas of initiating the discussion, explaining the problem, soliciting unrevealing information based on the given information and using common sense, keenly observing the discussion of others, clarifying controversial issues, influencing others, speaking effectively, concealing and mediating arguments among the participants and summarizing or concluding apply. The selection panel, based on its observation, judges the candidates’ skill and ability and ranks them according to their merit. In some cases, the selection panel may also ask the candidates to write the summary of the group discussion in order to know the candidates’ writing ability as well.

Test: Psychological tests play a vital role in employee selection. A psychological test is essentially an objective and standardized measure of sample of behavior from which inferences about future behavior and performance of the candidate can be drawn. Objectivity of tests refers to the validity and reliability of the instruments in measuring the ability of the individuals. Objectivity provides equal opportunity to all the job seekers without any discrimination against sex, caste etc. standardization of test refers to uniformity of the total behavior of the prospective employee on the job.

Types of Test: Tests are classified into six types. They are Aptitude tests, Achievement tests , Situational tests, Interest tests, Personality tests and Multidimensional testing.

Aptitude tests: These tests measure whether an individual has the capacity or latent ability to learn a given job if given adequate training. Aptitudes can be divided into general and mental ability or intelligence and specific aptitudes such as mechanical, clerical, manipulative capacity etc.
Emotional Quotient (EQ): Most of the organizations realized that emotional involvement and commitment of the employees determine their contribution to the company rather than their intelligence quotient. As such, emotional quotient (EQ) is used as important criteria in the employee selection process.

Achievement Tests: These tests are conducted when applicants claim to know something as these tests are concerned with what one has accomplished. These tests are more useful to measure the value of a specific achievement when an organization wishes to employ experienced candidates. These tests are classified into: (a) Job knowledge test: and (b) Work sample test.
Situational test: This test evaluates a candidate in a similar real life situation. In this test, the candidate is asked either to cope with the situation or solve critical situations of the job.

Interest tests: These tests are inventories of the likes and dislikes of candidates in relation to work, job, occupations, hobbies and recreational activities. The purpose of this test is to find out whether a candidate is interested or disinterested in the job for which he is a candidate and to find out in which area of the job range/occupation the candidate is interested. The assumption of this test is that there is a high correlation between the interest of a candidate in a job and job success. Interest inventories are less faked and they may not fluctuate after the age of 30.

Personality Tests: These tests prove deeply to discover clues to an individual’s value system, his emotional reactions and maturity and characteristic mood. They are expressed in such traits like self-confidence, tact, emotional control, optimism, decisiveness, sociability, conformity, objectivity, patience, fear, distrust, initiative, judgment dominance of submission, impulsiveness, sympathy, integrity, stability and self-confidence.

Other Tests:
Cognitive Ability Tests: These tests measure mathematical and verbal abilities. Popularly known tests of this category include Graduate Record Examination (GRE) and Scholastic Aptitude Test (SAT).
Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale: this is a comprehensive test including general information, arithmetic, similarities, vocabulary, picture completion, picture arrangement, object assembly and similar items.
Wonderlic Personnel Test: This test includes perceptual, verbal and arithmetic.
Polygraph Tests: The polygraph is an instrument that records changes in breathing, blood pressure, pulse and skin response associated with sweating of palms and plots these reactions on paper.

Multi-dimensional Testing: However, the need for multi-skills is being felt by most of the companies’ consequent upon globalization, competitiveness and the consequent customer-centred strategies. Organization have to develop multi-dimensional testing in order to find out whether the candidates possess a variety of skills or not, candidate’s ability to integrate the multi-skills and potentiality to apply them based on situational and functional requirement.

Employment Interview:
Final interview is usually followed by testing. This is the most essential step in the process of selection. In this step, the interviewer matches the information obtained about the candidate thorough various means to the job requirements and to the information obtained through his own observation during the interview.

Various Types of interviews: 1.Priliminary Interview 2.Core Interview 3.Decision-Making Interview

1.Priliminary Interview: Informal Interview & Unstructured Interview

Informal Interview: This is the interview which can be conducted at any place by any person to secure the basic and non-job related information. the interaction between the candidate and the personnel manager when the former meets the latter to enquire about the vacancies or additional particulars in connection with the employment advertisement is an example of informal interview.

Unstructured Interview: In this interview, the candidate in given the freedom to tell about himself by revealing his knowledge on various items/areas, his background , expectations, interest etc. Similarly, the interviewer also provides information on various items required by the candidate.

2.Core interview: It is normally the interaction between the candidate and the line executive or experts on various areas of no knowledge, skill, talent etc. this interview may take various forms like: Background Information Interview, Job and Probing Interview, Stress Interview, Stress Interview, Group Discussion Interview, Formal and Structured Interview, Panel Interview & Depth Interview.

Background Information Interview: This interview is intended to collect the information which is not available in the application blank and to check that information provided in the application blank regarding education, place of domicile, family, health, interests, hobbies, likes, dislikes and extracurricular activities of the applicant.

Job and Probing Interview: This interview aims at testing the candidate’s job knowledge about duties, activities, methods of doing the job, critical/problematic areas, methods of handling those areas etc.

Stress Interview: This Interview aims at testing the candidate’s job behaviour and level of withstanding during the period of stress and strain. The interviewer tests the candidate by putting him under stress and strain by interrupting the applicant from answering, criticising his opinions, asking questions pertaining to unrelated areas, keeping silent for unduly long periods after he has finished speaking etc. stress during the middle portion of the interview gives effective results. Stress interview must be handled with utmost care and skill. This type interview is often invalid, as the interviewee’s need for a job and his previous experience in such type of interviews may inhibit his actual behaviour under such situations.

Group Discussion Interview: There are two methods of conducting group discussion interviews, viz. group interview method and discussion interview method. All the candidates are brought into one room, i.e., the interview room and are interviewed one by one under group interview. This method helps a busy executive to save valuable time and gives a fair account of the objectivity of the interview to the candidates. Under the discussion interview method, one topic is given for discussion to the candidates who assemble in one room and they are asked to discuss the topic in detail. This type of interview helps the interviewer in appraising certain skills of the candidates like initiative, interpersonal skills, dynamism, presentation, leading, comprehension, collaboration etc. Interviewers are at ease in this category of interview because of its informality and flexibility. But it may fail to cover some significant portions of the candidates’ background and skills.

Formal and Structured Interview: In this type of interview, all the formalities, procedures like fixing the value, time, panel of interviewers, opening and closing, intimating the candidates officially etc. are strictly followed arranging and conducting the interview. The course of the interview is preplanned and structured, in advance, depending on job requirements, the questions for discussion are structured and experts are allotted different areas and questions to be asked. There will be very little room for the interviewers to deviate from the questions prepared in advance in a sequence.

Panel Interview: A panel of experts interviews each candidate, judges his performance individually and prepares consolidated judgment. This type of interview is known as panel interview. Interviews for middle level and senior level managers are normally conducted by the panel of experts.

Depth Interview: In this interview, the candidate would be examined extensively in core areas of job skills and knowledge. Experts test the candidate’s knowledge in depth. Depth interviews are conducted for specialist jobs. Information technology brought significant developments in the selection process of employees. The vital development is on-line interview.

3.Decision-Making Interview: After the candidates are examined by the experts including the line managers of the organization in the core areas of the job, the head of the department/section concerned interviews the candidates once again, mostly through informal discussion. The interviewer examines the interest of the candidate in the job, organization, reaction/adaptability to the working conditions, career planning, promotional opportunities, work adjustment and allotment etc. the Personnel Manager also interviews the candidates with a view to find out his reaction/acceptance regarding salary, allowances, benefits, promotions, opportunities etc. The head of the department and the personnel manager exchange the views and then they jointly inform their decision to the chairman of the interview board, who finally makes the decision about the candidates’ performance and their ranks in the interview. Most of the organizations have realized recently that employees’ positive attitude matters much rather than employees’ skills and knowledge. Employees with positive attitude contribute much to the organization. Hence the interviewers look for the candidates with the right attitude while making final decision.

Medical examination: – Applicants who have crossed the above stages are sent for a physical examination either to the company’s physician or to a medical officer approved for the purpose.

Reference checks: – The applicant is asked to mention in his application form the names and addresses of two or three persons who know him well.

Final approval: – The shortlisted candidates by the department are finally approved by the executives of the concerned department. Employment is offered in the form of appointment letter mentioning the post, the rank, the grade, the date by which the candidate should join and other terms and conditions in brief.

HR Interview

The goal of an HR interview is to determine the potential job performance of an applicant based on the answers that they give to questions. The HR interview is excellent for jobs that will require applicants to have communication skills. It will also allow the company to obtain important information that is related to the client. During the HR interview, the applicant will be able to demonstrate how much they know about a particular task.

The HR interview is designed to make sure the best candidates are selected. The interview will also allow the human resources department to determine if the applicant can work well with the other employees. However, there are a number of disadvantages to the HR interview process. The evaluations that are made by the HR department will often be subjective. The decision on whether or not they will hire the applicant is generally made during the first few minutes of the conversation. The rest of the interview is used by the HR department to determine if the decision is valid.

There are a number of ways that can be used to make the HR interview more successful. The use of stereotypes should be reduced as much as possible. Sex and race should not play a role in the selection process of the company. Studies have shown that interviewers who do not have an advanced knowledge of the job are much more likely to use stereotypes than those who do understand the job requirements.

The questions that are asked during the interview should always be related to the job. When applicants are asked questions which are not related to the job, this can damage the credibility of the company. To solve these problems, it is important for a company to make sure they train their employees, especially those who will be interviewing applicants. The interviewer must have interpersonal skills. They should not make quick decisions about those they interview, and they should never use stereotypes. The emphasis should never be placed on any one characteristic, especially if the job requires the applicant to be skilled in multiple areas.

Reliability of the Interview:
In the interview context, reliability is consensus, or agreement, between two interviewers on their assessment of the same candidates. This is called Interrater Reliability. Research shows that it is rather weak.

Similarity Error: Interviewers are positively predisposed to candidates who are similar to them (in hobbies, interests, personal background). They are negatively disposed to candidates who are unlike them.

Contrast Error: When several candidates are interviewed in succession, raters tend to compare each candidate with the preceding candidates instead of an absolute standard. Thus an average candidate can be rated as higher than average if he or she
comes after one or two poor candidates and lower than average if he or she follows an excellent candidate.

First Impression Error: Some interviewers tend to form a first impression of candidates rather quickly, based on a review of the application blank or on the first few moments of the interview. Thus, this impression is based on relatively little information about the candidate. Nevertheless the initial judgment is resistant t change as more information or contradictory information is acquired. In addition, the interviewer may choose subsequent questions based on the first impression, in an attempt to confirm the positive or negative impression.

Traits Rated and Halo Error: Halo error occurs when either the interviewer’s overall impression or strong impression of a single dimension spreads to influence his or her rating of other characteristics. For instance, if a candidate impresses the interviewer as being very enthusiastic, the interviewer might tend to rate he candidate high on other characteristics, such as job knowledge, loyalty and dependability. This is especially likely to happen when the interviewer is asked to rate many traits

Placement: Placement refers to assigning rank and responsibility to an individual, identifying him with a particular job. If the person adjusts to the job and continues to perform per expectations, it means that the candidate is properly placed. However, if the candidate is seen to have problems in adjusting himself to the job, the supervisor must find out whether the person is properly placed as per the latter’s aptitude and potential. Usually, placement problems arise out of wrong selection or improper placement or both. Therefore, organisations need to constantly review cases of employees expectations / potential and employee related problems such as turnover, absenteeism, accidents etc., and assess how far they are related to inappropriate placement decisions and remedy the situation without delay.

Induction: Induction refers to the introduction of a person to the job and the organisation. The purpose is to make the employee feel at home and develop a sense of pride in the organisation and commitment to the job. The induction process is also envisaged to indoctrinate, orient, acclimatise, acculture the person to the job and the organisation. The basic thrust of Induction training during the first one or few weeks after a person joins service in the organisation is to:
▪ introduce the person to the people with whom he works
▪ make him aware of the general company policies that apply to him as also the specific work situation and requirements,
▪answer any questions and clarify any doubts that the person may have about the job and the organisation ……and
▪ provide on-the-job instructions, check back periodically how
the person is doing and offer help, if required.

UNIT – 3

TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT & PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL

Introduction:Organization and individual should develop and progress simultaneously for their survival and attainment of mutual goals. So, every modern management has to develop the organization through human resources development. Employee training is the most important sub-system of human resources development. Training is a specialized function and is one of the fundamental operative functions for human resources management.

Meaning: After an employee is selected, placed and introduced in an organization he/she must be provided with training facilities in order to adjust him to the job. Training is the act of increasing the knowledge and skill of an employee for doing a particular job. Training is a short-term educational process and utilizing a systematic and organized procedure by which employees learn technical knowledge and skills for a definite purpose. Dale S. Beach defines the training as”….. the organized procedure by which people learn knowledge and skill for a definite purpose”. In other words, training improves changes and moulds the employee’s knowledge, skill, behavior and aptitude and attitude towards the requirements of the job and the organization. Training refers to the teaching and learning activities carried on for the primary purpose of helping members of an organization to acquire and apply the knowledge, skills, abilities and attitudes needed by a particular job and organization.Thus, training bridges the differences between job requirements and employee’s present specifications.

Training and Development: Employee training is distinct from management development or executive development. While the former refers to training given to employees in the areas of operations, technical and allied areas, the latter refers to developing an employee in the areas of principles and techniques of management, administration, organization and allied areas.

Importance Of Training and Development

Optimum Utilization of Human Resources – Training and Development helps in optimizing the utilization of human resource that further helps the employee to achieve the organizational goals as well as their individual goals.

Development of Human Resources – Training and Development helps to provide an opportunity and broad structure for the development of human resources’ technical and behavioral skills in an organization. It also helps the employees in attaining personal growth.

Development of skills of employees – Training and Development helps in increasing the job knowledge and skills of employees at each level. It helps to expand the horizons of human intellect and an overall personality of the employees.

Productivity – Training and Development helps in increasing the productivity of the employees that helps the organization further to achieve its long-term goal.

Team spirit – Training and Development helps in inculcating the sense of team work, team spirit, and inter-team collaborations. It helps in inculcating the zeal to learn within the employees.

Organization Culture – Training and Development helps to develop and improve the organizational health culture and effectiveness. It helps in creating the learning culture within the organization.

Organization Climate – Training and Development helps building the positive perception and feeling about the organization. The employees get these feelings from leaders, subordinates, and peers.

Quality – Training and Development helps in improving upon the quality of work and work-life.

Healthy work environment – Training and Development helps in creating the healthy working environment. It helps to build good employee, relationship so that individual goals aligns with organizational goal.

Health and Safety – Training and Development helps in improving the health and safety of the organization thus preventing obsolescence.

Morale – Training and Development helps in improving the morale of the work force.

Image – Training and Development helps in creating a better corporate image.

Profitability – Training and Development leads to improved profitability and more positive attitudes towards profit orientation.

Training and Development aids in organizational development i.e. Organization gets more effective decision making and problem solving. It helps in understanding and carrying out organisational policies

Training and Development helps in developing leadership skills, motivation, loyalty, better attitudes, and other aspects that successful workers and managers usually display.

Training Objectives: Generally, line managers ask the personnel manager to formulate the training policies. The personnel manager formulates the following training objectives in keeping with the company’s goals and objectives.
(i) To prepare the employee, both new and old to meet the present as well as the changing requirements of the job and the organization.
(ii) To prevent obsolescence.
(iii) To impart the new entrants the basic knowledge and skills they need for an intelligent performance of a definite job.
(iv) To prepare employees for higher level tasks.
(v) To assist employees to function more effectively in their present positions by exposing them to the latest concepts, information and techniques and developing the skills they will need in their particular fields.
(vi) To build up a second line of competent officers and prepare them to occupy more responsible positions.
(vii) To broaden the minds of senior managers by providing them with opportunities for an interchange of experiences within and outside with a view to correcting the narrowness of outlook that may arise from over-specialization.
(viii) To develop the potentialities of people for the next level job.
(ix) To ensure smooth and efficient working of a department.
(x) To ensure economical output of required quality.
(xi) To promote individual and collective morale, a sense of responsibility, co-operative attitudes and good relationships.

Training Methods: As a result of research in the field of training, a number of programs are available. Some of these are new methods, while others are improvements over the traditional methods. The training programs commonly used to train operative and supervisory personnel are discussed below. These programs are classified into on-the-job off-the-job training programs.

On-the Job Training Methods: This type of training, also known as job instruction training, is the most commonly used method. Under this method, the individual is placed on a regular job and taught the skills necessary to perform that job. The trainee learns under the supervision and guidance of a qualified worker or instructor. On-the-job training has the advantage of giving first hand knowledge and experience under the actual working conditions. While the trainee learns how to perform a job, he is also a regular worker rendering the services for which he is placed on rendering services in the most effective manner rather than learning how to perform the job. On-the-job training methods include job rotation, coaching, job instruction or training through step-by-step and committee assignment.

Job Rotation: This type of training involves the movement of the trainee from one job to another. The trainee receives job knowledge and gains experience from his supervisor or trainer in each of the different job assignments. Though this method of training is common in training managers for general management positions, trainees can also be rotated from job to job in work-shop jobs. This method gives an opportunity to the trainee to understand the problems of employees on other jobs and respect them.

Coaching: The trainee is placed under a particular supervisor who functions as a coach in training the individual. The supervisor provides feedback to the trainee on his performance and offers him some suggestions of his burden. A limitation of this method of training is that the trainee may not have the freedom or opportunity to express his own ideas.
Job Instruction: This method is also known as training through step by step. Under this method, the trainer explains to the trainee the way of doing the jobs, job knowledge and skills and allows him to do the job. The trainer appraises the performance of the trainee, provides feedback information and corrects the trainee.

Committee Assignments: Under the committee assignment, a group of trainees are given and asked to solve an actual organizational problem. The trainees solve the problem joint6ly. It develops team work.

Internship: Internship is one of the on-the-job training methods. Individuals entering industry in skilled trade4slike machinist, elect6ician and laboratory technician are provided with thorough instruction though theoretical and practical aspects. For example, TISCO, TELCO, and BHEL select the candidates from polytechnics engineering colleges and management institutions and provide apprenticeship training. Apprenticeship training programs are jointly sponsored by colleges, universities and industrial organizations to provide the opportunity to the students to gain real-life experience as well as employment. Exhibit presents the benefits of apprenticeship training.

MAKE INTERNSHIPS BENEFICIAL
Most of the Universities and Colleges encourage students for internship as part of the curriculum, as it is beneficial to all concerned.
Benefits to Students:
• Practical knowledge and exposure
• Higher initial salaries
• Faster promo9tions
• Quick job orientation
Benefits of Universities:
• Touch with market place
• Improvement in recruitment chances
• Improvement in attraction of quality students
Benefits to Potential Employers:
• Competent assistance
• Opportunity to evaluate potential employees
• No obligation to continue relationship at the end of internship
• Reduce recruitment expenses.

Off-the-Job Methods: Under this method of training, the trainee is separated from the job situation and his attention is focused upon learning the material related to his future job performance. Since the trainee is not distracted by job requirements, he can place his entire concentration on learning the job rather than spending his time in performing it. There is an opportunity for freedom of expression for the trainees. Companies have started using multimedia technology and information technologies in training off-the-job training methods are as follows:

Vestibule Training: In this method, actual work conditions are simulated in a class room, material, files and equipment which are used in actual job performance are also used in training. This type of training is commonly used for training personnel for clerical and semi-skilled jobs. The duration of this training ranges from days to a few weeks. Theory can be related to practice in this method.

Role Playing: It is defined as a method of human interaction that involves realistic behavior in imaginary situations. This method of training involves action, doing and practice. The participants play the role of certain characters such as the production manager, mechanical engineer, superintendents, maintenance engineers, quality control inspectors, foremen, workers and the like. This method is mostly used for developing inter-personal interactions and relations.

Lecture Method: The lecture is a traditional and direct method of instruction. The instructor organizes the material and gives it to a group of trainees in the form of a talk. To be effective, the lecture must motivate and create interest among the trainees. An advantage of the lecture methods that it is direct and can be used for a large group of trainees. Thus, costs and time involved are reduced. The major limitation of the lecture method is that it does not provide for transfer of training effectively.

Conference or Discussion: It is a method in training the clerical professional and supervisory personnel. This method involves group of people who pose ideas, examine and share facts, ideas and data, test assumptions and draw conclusions, all of which contribute to the improvement of job performance. Discussion has the distinct advantage over the lecture method, in that the discussion involves two-way communication and hence feed back is provided. The participants feel free to speak in small groups. The success of this method depends on the leadership qualities of the person who leads the group.

Programmed Instruction: In recent years, this method has become popular. The subject-matter to be learned is presented in a series of carefully planned sequential units. These units are arranged from simple to more complex level of instruction. The trainee goes through theses units by answering questions or filling the blanks. This method is expensive and time consuming.

The Training Procedure: The training procedure discussed below is essentially an adoption of the job instruction training course, which has been proved to have a great value. The important steps in the training procedure are discussed below:

Preparing the Instructor: The instructor must know both the job to be taught and how to teach it. The job must be divided into logical parts so that each can be taught at a proper time without the trainee losing plan. For each part, one should have in mind the desired technique of instruction, that is, whether a particular point is best taught by illustration, demonstration or explanation.

A serious and committed instructor must:
• Know the job or subject he is attempting to teach.
• Have the aptitude and ability to teach.
• Have willingness towards the profession.
• Have a pleasing personality and capacity for leadership.
• Have the kno2wledge of teaching principles and methods.\
• Be a permanent student, in the sense that he should equip himself with the latest concepts and knowledge.

Preparing the Trainee: As in interviewing, the first step in training is to attempt to place the trainee at east. Most people are some what nervous when approaching an unfamiliar task. Though the instructor may have executed this training procedure, many times he or she never forgets its newness to the trainee. The quality of empathy is a mark of the good instructor.

Getting Ready to Teach: This stage of the program is class hour teaching involving the following activities:
• Planning the program.
• Preparing the instructor’s outline.
• Do not try to cover too much material.
• Keep the session moving along logically.
• Discuss each item in depth.
• Repeat, but in different words.
• Take the material from standardized texts when it is available.
• When the standardized text is not available, develop the program and course content based on group approach. Group consists of employer, skilled employees, supervisors, trade union leaders and others familiar with job requirements. Group prepares teaching material.
• Teach about the standard for the trainee like quality, quantity, waste or scrap, ability to work without supervision, knowledge or procedure, safety rules, human relations etc.
• Remember your standard, before you teach.

Presenting the Operation: There are various alternative ways of presenting the operation, viz. explanation, demonstration etc. an instructor mostly uses these methods of explanation. In addition, one may illustrate various points through the use of pictures, charts, diagrams and other training aids.

Try Out the Trainee’s Performance: As a continuation of the presentation sequence given above, the trainee should be asked to start the job or operative procedure. Some instructors prefer that the trainee explains each step before doing it, particularly if the operation involves any danger. The trainee, through repetitive practice, will acquire more skill.

Follow-up: The final step in most training procedures is that of follow-up. When people are involved in any problem or procedure, it is unwise to assume that things are always constant. Follow-up cab be adopted to a variable reinforcement schedule as suggested in the discussion of learning principles. Every training program should have follow-up otherwise the training programs in the future cannot be improved.

EVALUATION OF TRAINING PROGRAMME

The specification of values forms a basis for evaluation. The basis of evaluation and the mode of collection of information necessary for evaluation should be determined at the planning stage. The process of training evaluation has been defined as “any attempt to obtain information on the effects of training permance and to assess the value of training in the light of that information”. Evaluation leads to controlling and correcting the training program. Hamblin suggested five level at which evaluation of training can take place, viz, reactions, learning, job behavior, organization and ultimate value.

Positive Attitudes Make an Organisation
• Determine training needs through job description, performance appraisal forms and potential appraisal discussions.
• Prepare a training calendar in discussion with managers.
• Training programs should be well defined specific objectives.
• Nominate the employees for training based on a need for training.
• Trainers should be qualified and experienced, and preferably internal.

Reactions: Training program is evaluated on the basis of the trainee’s reactions to the usefulness of coverage of the matter, depth of the course content, method of presentation, teaching methods etc.
Learning: Training program, trainer’s ability and trainee ability are evaluated on the basis of quantity of content learned and time in which it is learned and the learner’s ability to use or apply the content he learned.
Job Behavior: This evaluation includes the manner and extent to which the trainee has applied his learning to his job.
Organisation: This evaluation measures the use of training, learning and change in the job behavior of the department/organization in the form of increased productivity, quality, morale, sales turnover and the like.
Ultimate Value: It is the measurement of the ultimate result of the contributions of the training program to the Company goals like survival, growth, profitability etc., and to the individual goals like development of personality and social goals like maximizing social benefit.

MANAGEMENT DEVELOPMENT INTRODCTION

What is Management Development?
Management development is a systematic process of growth and development by which the managers develop their abilities to manage. So, it is the result of not only participation in formal courses of instruction but also of actual job experience. It is concerned with improving the performance of the managers by giving them opportunities for growth and development, which in turn depends on organization structure of the company.

Role of the Organisation:“The role of the company in management development is to establish the program and the development opportunities for its present and potential managers”. “Executive development is eventually something that the executive has to attain himself. But he will do this much better if he is given encouragement, guidance and opportunity by his company”.

Objectives of Management Development: The management development programs are organized with a view to achieving specific objectives. They are:
(i) To overhaul the management machinery.
(ii) To improve the performance of the managers.
(iii) To give the specialists on overall view of the functions of an organization and equip them to coordinate each other’s efforts effectively.
(iv) To identify persons with the required potential and prepare them for senior positions.
(v) To increase morale of the members of the management group.
(vi) To increase versatility of the management group.
(vii) To keep the executives abreast with the changes and developments in their respective fields.
(viii) To create the management succession that can take over in case of contingencies.
(ix) To improve thought process and analytical ability.
(x) To broaden the outlook of the executive regarding h is role position and responsibilities.
(xi) To understand the conceptual issues relating to economic, social and technical areas.
(xii) To understand the problems of human relations and improve human relations skills and
(xiii) To stimulate creative thinking.
Achievement of the above stated objectives is very difficult as some factors inhibit the management development process.

Evaluation of Management Development Programs: Management development programs should be evaluated in order to find out whether the objectives of the programs are achieved or not. The development programs would be effective, if they contribute to the organizational group and individual goals. Management should delegate the responsibility of evaluation to a senior manager in the HRD department. The evaluation specialist should be clear of the objectives and goals against which the evaluation is conducted. Evaluation should be a continuous process and specific. The evaluation specialist should inform the trainees well in advance the content, objectives, areas and the method of evaluation. Evaluation must be objective oriented. Evaluation must be realistic in terms of direction, standards etc.,The areas of evaluation include different managerial skills, knowledge, technical skills and knowledge and conceptual skills and knowledge. The areas should be specific for each MDP based on the content provided. Further, the evaluation can also be conducted regarding the training methodology, input/output/content, infrastructure and physical facilities, teaching aids etc.,
Evaluation should not only immediately be after the completion of the programs but also in specific intervals in the long-run in order to find out the impact of the MDP on the job behavior and efficiency of the trainee. Further, their evaluation may also measure the improvement in decision-making skill, interpersonal relation, strategy making and implementation skills, role modeling skills etc., these areas depend upon the content of each MDP. The evaluation results should be provided to the trainees, their superiors, subordinates and HRD department of the organization. These results can be used for further improvement of the future programs in the company.

Methods of Management Development: There are mainly two types of methods by which managers can acquire the knowledge, skills and attitudes and make themselves competent managers. One is through formal training and the other is through on-the-job experiences. On-the-job training is of utmost importance as the real learning takes place only when the learner uses what he has learnt. The saying ”an ounce of practice is worth tons of theory” is true, whoever said it. But it should also be remembered that class-room training or pedagogical techniques have also get their own importance in learning new knowledge, learning new techniques and broader concepts.

Performance Appraisal

Performance appraisal is the process of obtaining, analyzing and recording information about the relative worth of an employee. The focus of the performance appraisal is measuring and improving the actual performance of the employee and also the future potential of the employee. Its aim is to measure what an employee does.

According to Flippo, a prominent personality in the field of Human resources, “performance appraisal is the systematic, periodic and an impartial rating of an employee’s excellence in the matters pertaining to his present job and his potential for a better job.” Performance appraisal is a systematic way of reviewing and assessing the performance of an employee during a given period of time and planning for his future.

It is a powerful tool to calibrate, refine and reward the performance of the employee. It helps to analyze his achievements and evaluate his contribution towards the achievements of the overall organizational goals.

By focusing the attention on performance, performance appraisal goes to the heart of personnel management and reflects the management’s interest in the progress of the employees.

Objectives Of Performance appraisal:

●To review the performance of the employees over a given period of time.
●To judge the gap between the actual and the desired performance.
●To help the management in exercising organizational control.
●Helps to strengthen the relationship and communication between superior – subordinates and management – employees.
●To diagnose the strengths and weaknesses of the individuals so as to identify the training and development needs of the future.
●To provide feedback to the employees regarding their past performance.
●Provide information to assist in the other personal decisions in the organization.
●Provide clarity of the expectations and responsibilities of the functions to be performed by the employees.
●To judge the effectiveness of the other human resource functions of the organization such as recruitment, selection, training and development.
●To reduce the grievances of the employees.

Traditional Methods of Performance Appraisal

ESSAY APPRAISAL METHOD: This traditional form of appraisal, also known as “Free Form method” involves a description of the performance of an employee by his superior. The description is an evaluation of the performance of any individual based on the facts and often includes examples and evidences to support the information. A major drawback of the method is the inseparability of the bias of the evaluator.

STRAIGHT RANKING METHOD: This is one of the oldest and simplest techniques of performance appraisal. In this method, the appraiser ranks the employees from the best to the poorest on the basis of their overall performance. It is quite useful for a comparative evaluation.

PAIRED COMPARISON: A better technique of comparison than the straight ranking method, this method compares each employee with all others in the group, one at a time. After all the comparisons on the basis of the overall comparisons, the employees are given the final rankings.

CRITICAL INCIDENTS METHODS: In this method of Performance appraisal, the evaluator rates the employee on the basis of critical events and how the employee behaved during those incidents. It includes both negative and positive points. The drawback of this method is that the supervisor has to note down the critical incidents and the employee behaviour as and when they occur.

FIELD REVIEW: In this method, a senior member of the HR department or a training officer discusses and interviews the supervisors to evaluate and rate their respective subordinates. A major drawback of this method is that it is a very time consuming method. But this method helps to reduce the superiors’ personal bias.

CHECKLIST METHOD: The rater is given a checklist of the descriptions of the behaviour of the employees on job. The checklist contains a list of statements on the basis of which the rater describes the on the job performance of the employees.

GRAPHIC RATING SCALE: In this method, an employee’s quality and quantity of work is assessed in a graphic scale indicating different degrees of a particular trait. The factors taken into consideration include both the personal characteristics and characteristics related to the on the job performance of the employees. For example a trait like Job Knowledge may be judged on the range of average, above average, outstanding or unsatisfactory.

FORCED DISTRIBUTION: To eliminate the element of bias from the rater’s ratings, the evaluator is asked to distribute the employees in some fixed categories of ratings like on a normal distribution curve. The rater chooses the appropriate fit for the categories on his own discretion.

Modern Methods of Performance Appraisal

ASSESSMENT CENTRES: An assessment centre typically involves the use of methods like social/informal events, tests and exercises, assignments being given to a group of employees to assess their competencies to take higher responsibilities in the future. Generally, employees are given an assignment similar to the job they would be expected to perform if promoted. The trained evaluators observe and evaluate employees as they perform the assigned jobs and are evaluated on job related characteristics. The major competencies that are judged in assessment centres are interpersonal skills, intellectual capability, planning and organizing capabilities, motivation, career orientation etc. assessment centres are also an effective way to determine the training and development needs of the targeted employees.

BEHAVIORALLY ANCHORED RATING SCALES: Behaviorally Anchored Rating Scales (BARS) is a relatively new technique which combines the graphic rating scale and critical incidents method. It consists of predetermined critical areas of job performance or sets of behavioral statements describing important job performance qualities as good or bad (for eg. the qualities like inter personal relationships, adaptability and reliability, job knowledge etc). These statements are developed from critical incidents. In this method, an employee’s actual job behaviour is judged against the desired behaviour by recording and comparing the behaviour with BARS. Developing and practicing BARS requires expert knowledge.

HUMAN RESOURCE ACCOUNTING METHOD: Human resources are valuable assets for every organization. Human resource accounting method tries to find the relative worth of these assets in the terms of money. In this method the Performance appraisal of the employees is judged in terms of cost and contribution of the employees. The cost of employees include all the expenses incurred on them like their compensation, recruitment and selection costs, induction and training costs etc whereas their contribution includes the total value added (in monetary terms). The difference between the cost and the contribution will be the performance of the employees. Ideally, the contribution of the employees should be greater than the cost incurred on them.

360-Degree-Performance-Appraisal Method: 360 degree feedback, also known as ‘multi-rater feedback’, is the most comprehensive appraisal where the feedback about the employees’ performance comes from all the sources that come in contact with the employee on his job. 360 degree respondents for an employee can be his/her peers, managers (i.e. superior), subordinates, team members, customers, suppliers/ vendors – anyone who comes into contact with the employee and can provide valuable insights and information or feedback regarding the “on-the-job” performance of the employee.

360 degree appraisal has four integral components:1. Self appraisal
2. Superior’s appraisal 3. Subordinate’s appraisal 4. Peer appraisal.

Self appraisal gives a chance to the employee to look at his/her strengths and weaknesses, his achievements, and judge his own performance. Superior’s appraisal forms the traditional part of the 360 degree performance appraisal where the employees’ responsibilities and actual performance is rated by the superior. Subordinates appraisal gives a chance to judge the employee on the parameters like communication and motivating abilities, superior’s ability to delegate the work, leadership qualities etc. Also known as internal customers, the correct feedback given by peers can help to find employees’ abilities to work in a team, co-operation and sensitivity towards others.

360 degree performance appraisal is also a powerful developmental tool because when conducted at regular intervals it helps to keep a track of the changes others’ perceptions about the employees. A 360 degree appraisal is generally found more suitable for the managers as it helps to assess their leadership and managing styles. This technique is being effectively used across the globe for performance appraisals. Some of the organizations following it are Wipro, Infosys, and Reliance Industries etc.

PROCESS OF PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL

ESTABLISHING PERFORMANCE STANDARDS: The first step in the process of performance appraisal is the setting up of the standards which will be used to as the base to compare the actual performance of the employees. This step requires setting the criteria to judge the performance of the employees as successful or unsuccessful and the degrees of their contribution to the organizational goals and objectives. The standards set should be clear, easily understandable and in measurable terms. In case the performance of the employee cannot be measured, great care should be taken to describe the standards.

COMMUNICATING THE STANDARDS: Once set, it is the responsibility of the management to communicate the standards to all the employees of the organization. The employees should be informed and the standards should be clearly explained to the. This will help them to understand their roles and to know what exactly is expected from them. The standards should also be communicated to the appraisers or the evaluators and if required, the standards can also be modified at this stage itself according to the relevant feedback from the employees or the evaluators.

MEASURING THE ACTUAL PERFORMANCE: The most difficult part of the Performance appraisal process is measuring the actual performance of the employees that is the work done by the employees during the specified period of time. It is a continuous process which involves monitoring the performance throughout the year. This stage requires the careful selection of the appropriate techniques of measurement, taking care that personal bias does not affect the outcome of the process and providing assistance rather than interfering in an employees work.

COMPARING THE ACTUAL WITH THE DESIRED PERFORMANCE: The actual performance is compared with the desired or the standard performance. The comparison tells the deviations in the performance of the employees from the standards set. The result can show the actual performance being more than the desired performance or, the actual performance being less than the desired performance depicting a negative deviation in the organizational performance. It includes recalling, evaluating and analysis of data related to the employees’ performance.

DISCUSSING RESULTS:The result of the appraisal is communicated and discussed with the employees on one-to-one basis. The focus of this discussion is on communication and listening. The results, the problems and the possible solutions are discussed with the aim of problem solving and reaching consensus. The feedback should be given with a positive attitude as this can have an effect on the employees’ future performance. The purpose of the meeting should be to solve the problems faced and motivate the employees to perform better.

DECISION MAKING: The last step of the process is to take decisions which can be taken either to improve the performance of the employees, take the required corrective actions, or the related HR decisions like rewards, promotions, demotions, transfers etc.

Purpose Of Performance Appraisal: Performance Appraisal is being practiced in 90% of the organisations worldwide. Self-appraisal and potential appraisal also form a part of the performance appraisal processes. Performance Appraisal is aimed at:

●To review the performance of the employees over a given period of time.
●To judge the gap between the actual and the desired performance.
●To help the management in exercising organizational control.
●To diagnose the training and development needs of the future.
●Provide information to assist in the HR decisions like promotions, transfers etc.
●Provide clarity of the expectations and responsibilities of the functions to be performed by the employees.
●To judge the effectiveness of the other human resource functions of the organization such as recruitment, selection, training and development.
●To reduce the grievances of the employees.
●Helps to strengthen the relationship and communication between superior – subordinates and management – employees.

The most significant reasons of using Performance appraisal are:

●Making payroll and compensation decisions – 80%
●Training and development needs – 71%
●Identifying the gaps in desired and actual performance and its cause – 76%
●Deciding future goals and course of action – 42%
●Promotions, demotions and transfers – 49%
●Other purposes – 6% (including job analysis and providing superior support, assistance and counseling)

Performance Appraisals as Career Development: Performance appraisal is a part of career development. The latest mantra being followed by organizations across the world being – “get paid according to what you contribute” – the focus of the organizations is turning to performance management and specifically to individual performance. Performance appraisal helps to rate the performance of the employees and evaluate their contribution towards the organizational goals. Performance appraisal as Career Development leads to the recognition of the work done by the employees, many a times by the means of rewards and appreciation etc. It plays the role of the link between the organization and the employees’ personal career goals.

Potential appraisal, a part of Performance appraisal, helps to identify the hidden talents and potential of the individuals. Identifying these potential talents can help in preparing the individuals for higher responsibilities and positions in the future. The performance appraisal process in itself is developmental in nature.

Performance appraisal is also closely linked to other HR processes like helps to identify the training and development needs, promotions, demotions, changes in the compensation etc. A feedback communicated in a positive manner goes a long way to motivate the employees and helps to identify individual career developmental plans. Based on the evaluation, employees can develop their career goals, achieve new levels of competencies and chart their career progression. Performance appraisal encourages employees to reinforce their strengths and overcome their weaknesses.

Performance Appraisal Feedback: Performance appraisal process is incomplete without the feedback given to the employee about his appraisal and his performance. But the way of giving as well as receiving the feedback differs from person to person and their way of handling and their outlook towards the issue. Therefore, On the part of the person receiving the feedback, the following points are important to be taken care of:
●The employee should have a positive attitude towards the feedback process
●He should listen to the suggestions of the appraiser calmly and try to incorporate them in his plans.
●He should not hesitate to ask for the help of his superiors.
●Should have a co-operative attitude during the feedback meeting.
●Should take the feedback objectively.
●Should not judge the appraiser as a person on the basis of the feedback.

On the part of the appraiser or the manager / person giving the feedback, the following points are to be taken care of:
●The appraiser should make the receiver feel comfortable during the feedback meeting.
●The appraiser should make it a two – way conversation i.e. let the employee speak.
●Listen to the employee and note his points, suggestions, problems etc.
●The appraiser should not adopt a confrontational approach towards the meeting. The goal is not to criticize the employee.
●Provide a constructive feedback to the employee i.e. in a way which will motivate him to perform better.
●Have a positive attitude towards the process
●Be fair and objective
●Prepare yourself for what to say and how to say.
●Make the appraisal feedback meeting useful and productive for the organization and the employee.

UNIT – 4

COMPENSATION

SALARY & WAGE ADMINISTRATION

Wage salary administration is essentially the application of a systematic approach to the problem of ensuring that employees are paid in a logical, equitable and fair manner.

Wage: Wage and salary are often discussed in loose sense, as they are used interchangeably. But Indian Labour Organisation (ILO) defined the term wage as “the remuneration paid by the employer for the services of hourly, daily, weekly and fortnightly employees. “It also means that remuneration paid to production and maintenance or blue collar employees.

Salary: The term salary is defined as the remuneration paid to the clerical and managerial personnel employed on monthly or annual basis.This distinction between wage and salary does not seem to be valid in these days of human resources approach where all employees are treated as human resources and are viewed at par. Hence, these two terms can be used interchangeably. As such, the term wage and/or salary can be defined as the direct remuneration paid to an employee compensating his services to an organization. Salary is also known as basic pay.

Earnings: Earnings are the total amount of remuneration received by an employee during a given period. These include salary (pay), dearness allowance; house rent allowance, city compensatory allowance, other allowances, overtime payments etc.

Nominal wage: It is the wage paid or received in monetary terms. It is also known as money wage.

Real wage: Real wage is the amount of wage arrived after discounting nominal wage by the living cost. It represents the purchasing power of money wage.\

Take Home Salary: It is the amount of salary left to the employee after making authorized deductions like contribution to the provident fund, life insurance premium, income tax and other charges.

Minimum wage: It is the amount of remuneration which could meet the “normal needs of the average employee regarded as a human being living in a civilized society.” It is defined as the amount or remuneration “which may be sufficient to enable a worker to live in reasonable comfort, having regard to all obligations to which an average worker would ordinarily be subjected to”.

Statutoty Minimum Wage: It is the amount of remuneration fixed according to the provisions of the minimum wages Act, 1948.

OBJECTIVE OF WAGE AND SALARY ADMINISTRATION

The objective of wage and salary administration is numerous and sometimes conflict with each other. The important among them are:
• To acquire qualified competent personnel: Candidates decide upon their career in a particular organization mostly on the basis of the amount of remuneration the organization offers. Qualified and competent people join the best-paid organizations. As such, the organizations should aim at payment of salaries at that level, where thy can attract competent and qualified people.
• To retain the present employees: If the salary level does not compare favorable with that of other similar organizations, employees quit the present one and join other organizations. The organization must keep the wage levels at the competitive level, in order to prevent such quits.
• To secure internal and external equity: Internal equity does mean payment of similar wages for similar jobs within the organization. External equity implies payment of similar wages to similar jobs in comparable organizations.
• To ensure desired behaviour: Good rewards reinforce desired bahaviour like performance, loyalty, accepting new responsibilities and changes etc.
• To keep labour and administrative costs in line with the ability of the organization to pay.
• To protect in public as progressive employers and to comply with the wage legislations.
• To pay according to the content and difficulty of the job and in tune with the effort and merit of the employees.
• To facilitate pay roll administration of budgeting and wage and salary control.
• To simplify collective bargaining procedures and negotiations.
• To promote organization feasibility.

FACTORS AFFECTING WAGE/SALARY LEVELS

Generally, a large number of factors influence the salary levels in an organization. Significant among them are:
(i) Remuneration in Comparable Industries;
(ii) Firm’s Ability to Pay;
(iii) Cost of Living;
(iv) Productivity;
(v) Union Pressure and Strategies; and
(vi) Government Legislations.

(i) Remuneration in Comparable Industries: Prevailing rates of remuneration in comparable industries constituted an important factor in determining salary levels. The organization, in the long-run, must pay at least equal to the going rate for similar jobs in similar organization. Further, the salary rates for the similar jobs in the firms located in the same geographical region also influence the wage rate in the organization. The organization has to pay the wages equal to that paid for similar jobs in comparable industries in order to secure and retain the competent employees, to follow the directive of Courts of Law, to meet the trade union’s demands, to satisfy the employee’s need for same social status as that of same categories of employees in comparable organizations. Comparable industries constitute the organizations engaged in the same or similar activities, of the same size in the similar type or management, i.e., public sector or under the management of same owners, organizations located in the same geographical region etc.,

(ii) Firm’s Ability to Pay: One of the principal considerations that weigh with the management in fixing the salary levels is its ability to pay. But in the short-run, the influence of ability to pay may be practically nil. However, in the long-run, it is quite an influential factor. In addition, total cost of employees (salaries, allowances, cost of fringe benefits etc.) should be taken into consideration in determining the ability to pay. Trade Unions demand higher wages when the company’s financial position is sound. But they may not accept wage reduction, when the company’s financial position is in doldrums. Hence, the management has to take decisions judiciously. Further, certain incentives are linked to the profitability. Thus, whatever the influence of other factors may be, the organization cannot pay more than its ability to pay in the long-run.

(iii) Relating to Price-index: The cost of living is another important factor that influences the quantum of salary. The employees expect that their purchasing power be maintained at least at the same level, if not increased by adjusting wages to changes in cost of living. In fact, in recent years, in advanced countries, “ a number f labour agreements have ‘escalator’ clauses, providing for automatic wage and salary increase as cost of living index raises. “Dearness allowance is an allowance granted to the employees with a view to combating onslaughts of soaring prices.

(iv) Productivity: An interesting development in wage determination has been productivity standard. This is based on the fact that productivity increase is also the result of employee satisfaction and contribution to the organization. But wage productivity linkage does not appear to be so easy since many problems crop up in respect of the concept and measurement of productivity. But, although the wages are not linked directly to the productivity in an organization, changes in productivity have their impact on remuneration. This criteria received consideration of wage boards. “not only because it constituted a factor in the fixation of ‘fair wage’ but also because it was directly related to such questions as desirability of extending the system of payment by result”.

(v) Union Pressure and Strategies: the wages are also often influenced by the strength of Unions, their bargaining capacity and their strategies. Arthur M. Ross concluded that “read hourly earnings have advanced more sharply in highly organized industries than in less unionized industries. “Unions pressurize management through their collective bargaining strategies political tactics and by organizing strikes etc. trade unions influence maybe on the grounds of wages in comparable industries, firm’s financial position, raised particularly in those industries where the wage level is below that of other comparable industries”.

(vi) Government Legislations: Government legislations influence wage determination. The two important legislations which affect wage fixation are: the Payment of Wages Act, 1936 and the Minimum Wages Act, 1948. The important provisions of the Payment of Wages Act, 1936 are: ensuring proper payment of wages ad avoiding all malpractices like non-payment, underpayment, delayed and irregular payment, payment in king and under-measurement of work. The Act covers all employees drawing the wage up to Rs. 1,000 per month. The Act stipulates that the organizations with less than hundred workers should pay the wage by the seventh and the organizations with more than 100 employees should pay by the tenth of nest month.

Compensation: An Overview

●Compensation – Total of all rewards provided employees in return for services
●Direct financial compensation – Pay received in the form of wages, salaries,
bonuses, and commissions
●Indirect financial compensation – All financial rewards not included in direct
compensation
●Nonfinancial compensation – Satisfaction a person receives from job itself or
from work environment

Equity in Financial Compensation

●Equity – Fair pay treatment for employees
●External equity – Comparable salary for work performed by workers of similar
jobs in other firms.
●Internal equity – pay according to relative value of other jobs within same
organization
●Employee equity – Individuals performing similar jobs for same firm are paid
according to factors unique to employee, such as performance level or seniority
●Team equity – More productive teams are rewarded more than less productive
groups

Compensation Policies

●Pay leaders – pay higher wages and salaries
●Market rate, or going rate – pay what most employers pay for same job
●Pay followers – pay below market rate because poor financial condition or
believe they do not require highly capable employees

Job Evaluation

●Firm determines the relative value of one job in relation to another
●Ranking
●Classification
●Factor comparison
●Point

Ranking Method
●Simplest method
●Raters examine description of each job
●Jobs arranged in order according to value

Factor Comparison Method
●Mental requirements
●Skills
●Physical requirements
●Responsibilities
●Working conditions

Job Pricing

●Placing a dollar value on worth of a job
●Pay grades – Grouping of similar jobs to simplify pricing jobs
●Wage curve – Fitting of plotted points to create a smooth progression between
pay grades
●Pay ranges – Minimum and maximum pay rate with enough variance between
the two to allow for a significant pay difference

Employee –Determinant of Financial Compensation

●Performance-based Pay
●Skilled-based Pay
●Competency-based Pay
●Seniority
●Experience
●Membership in the organization
●Potential
●Political Influence
●Luck

Performance-Based Pay
●Merit pay – Pay increase given to employees based on their level of
performance as indicated in the appraisal
●Variable pay – Compensation based on performance (bonus)
●Piecework – Employees paid for each unit they produce

Skill-Based Pay

Compensates on basis of job-related skills and knowledge
●Employees and departments benefit when employees obtain additional skills
●Appropriate where work tends to be routine and less varied
●Must provide adequate training opportunities or system becomes a demotivator
Seniority
●Length of time an employee has been associated with the company, division,
department, or job
●Labor unions tend to favor seniority

Organizational Memberships

●Some components of individual financial compensation are given to employees
regardless of particular job they perform or their level of productivity
●Intended to maintain a high degree of stability in the workforce and to recognize
loyalty

Compensation for Special Groups
●Team-based Pay
●Company-wide Plans
●Compensation for Professional
●Compensation for Sales Employees
●Compensation for Contingency Workers

Company-Wide Pay
●Profit sharing – distribution of predetermined percentage of firm’s profits to
employees
●Gain sharing – incentive payment based upon improved company performance
●Scanlon plan – reward to employees for savings in labor costs resulting from
employees’ suggestions

Types of Executive Compensation

●Base salary
●Short-term (annual) incentives or bonuses
●Long-term incentives and capital appreciation plans
●Stock option plans
●Indexed stock option plans
●Executive benefits (Perks)
●Golden parachutes

Compensation Management Purpose

Compensation is a key factor in attracting and keeping the best employees and ensuring that your organization has the competitive edge in an increasingly competitive world. The Compensation Management component enables you to differentiate between your remuneration strategies and those of your competitors while still allowing flexibility, control and cost effectiveness.

It provides a toolset for strategic remuneration planning that reflects your organization culture and pay strategies, and it empowers line managers within a framework of flexible budget control. Compensation Management allows you to control bottom-line expenditures and offer competitive and motivating remuneration, be it fixed pay, variable pay, stock options, merit increases, or promotion – in other words, total compensation.
In brief, you can use this component to perform:
_ Create centralized and decentralized budgets
_ Plan and administer compensation adjustments at the manager level
_ Plan and administer compensation adjustments within budget
_ Performing Job Pricing
_ Define pay grades and salary structures to identify the internal value of jobs and positions in your organization
_ Administer long-term incentives

BUILDING COMPENSATION PLANS

During the process of establishing compensation plans, companies take into consideration different employee types, such as a software engineer or a sales representative, and establish the primary salary ranges based on the different grades available for each position (e.g., Software Engineer I, Software Engineer II). Each position can be assigned an associated salary or compensation range, which can be further affected by other factors such as seniority, location, and market salary surveys.
Which factors are included and how much weight each factor has are easily configured during the plan definition phase. Softscape Compensation Planning includes all aspects of employee compensation, including bonuses and long-term incentives such as stock options. Compensation plan definition is extremely flexible. For instance, a plan can be applied to all employees or groups of employees, different policies in a single plan may apply to all employees or a group of employees, or an organization may cover all of its employees within one plan or within multiple plans. Plans can be tested against the organization’s budget using simulations to ensure that policies are practically applied.

MANAGERIAL COMPENSATION

There is a feeling among the trade union circles that executives get a very high salary including perks. Hence, they view that the level of executive compensation should be contained in view of the objectives of the socialistic pattern of society. However, the existing provisions of managerial compensation would provide a clear picture. Section 198 of the Companies Act, 1956 says that the total managerial remuneration payable by a public limited company to its directors, secretaries and treasures and managers in a financial year shall not exceed 11% of the net profits of the company. Section 198(4) of the Companies Act provides that in the absence or inadequacy profits, a maximum of Rs.50,000 may be paid to Managing Director and all directors. In exceptional cases, the Government may permit payment of higher salary. Section 309(4) of the Act stipulates Certain ceilings on the remuneration payable.

The Government issued guidelines in November, 1978. According to these guidelines, the overall salary was restricted to Rs. 72,000 per annum and perks were restricted to Rs.60,000 per annum. Managers and organizations were highly critical about these guidelines. They felt that they discourage initiative and hamper the skill of managers. Peter F. Durucker . who was in India during November and December, 1978, thought that such ceiling should cause migration of talent from India. He suggested that Indian managers should not accept lower salaries and they should demand tax-free as is the custom in Sweden. Ratio between the lowest and highest salary of managers in Sweden is 1:5 But the tax free benefits are enormously granted to the executives.

In view of the criticism, the Government announced some liberalization to the guidelines. Overall ceiling is as it was at Rs. 60,000 but it is increased to Rs. 62,700 in case of Mumbai. Rates of house rent allowance to salary are raised to 45% in case of Mumbai, 40% in case of Delhi, 35% in case of Kolkata and 30% in case of other places. An allowance of 10% is allowed for cooking gas, electricity, gas etc. Expenditure of pensionary benefits is increased upto 25% of the salary. Medical expenses allowance equal to three months salary is allowed. However, the Gujarat High Court in May, 1980 and the Delhi High Court in August, 1980, struck down the guidelines of November 1978 as violative of Section 637-A of the Companies Act, 1956.
The Government in U.K. accepted fair remuneration for executives in the public sector with a view to attracting whereas the Government in India reduced the managerial compensation in the private sector with a view to equalizing them with those of the public sector. Thus, the Government wishes to control its burden at the cost of talent and skill.
Influences on Compensation: Factors Determining Pay Rates 1. Job needs 2. Ability to pay 3. Cost of living 4. Prevailing rates 5. Unions 6. Productivity 7. State regulation
8. Demand and surplus of workforce

Job Evaluation:

Job evaluation is a practical technique, designed to enable trained and experienced staff to judge the size of one job relative to others. It does not directly determine pay levels, but will establish the basis for an internal ranking of jobs.

The two most common methods of job evaluation that have been used are first, whole job ranking, where jobs are taken as a whole and ranked against each other. The second method is one of awarding points for various aspects of the job. In the points system various aspects or parts of the job such as education and experience required to perform the job are assessed and a points value awarded – the higher the educational requirements of the job the higher the points scored. The most well known points scheme was introduced by Hay management consultants in 1951. This scheme evaluates job responsibilities in the light of three major factors – know how, problem solving and accountability.

Job Evaluation Methods:

There are three basic methods of job evaluation: (1) ranking, (2) classification, (3) factor comparison. While many variations of these methods exist in practice, the three basic approaches are described here.

Ranking Method: Perhaps the simplest method of job evaluation is the ranking method. According to this method, jobs are arranged from highest to lowest, in order of their value or merit to the organization. Jobs also can be arranged according to the relative difficulty in performing them. The jobs are examined as a whole rather than on the basis of important factors in the job; and the job at the top of the list has the highest value and obviously the job at the bottom of the list will have the lowest value.

Jobs are usually ranked in each department and then the department rankings are combined to develop an organizational ranking. The following table is a hypothetical illustration of ranking of jobs.

Array of Jobs according to the Ranking Method

Rank Monthly salaries

1. Accountant Rs 3,000

2. Accounts clerk Rs 1,800

3. Purchase assistant Rs 1,700

4. Machine-operator Rs 1,400

5. Typist Rs 900

6. Office boy Rs 600

The variation in payment of salaries depends on the variation of the nature of the job performed by the employees. The ranking method is simple to understand and practice and it is best suited for a small organization. Its simplicity, however, works to its disadvantage in big organizations because rankings are difficult to develop in a large, complex organization. Moreover, this kind of ranking is highly subjective in nature and may offend many employees. Therefore, a more scientific and fruitful way of job evaluation is called for.

Job Classification Method

According to this method, a predetermined number of job groups or job classes are established and jobs are assigned to these classifications. This method places groups of jobs into job classes or job grades. Separate classes may include office, clerical, managerial, personnel, etc. Following is a brief description of such a classification in an office.

(a) Class I – Executives: Further classification under this category may be Office manager, Deputy office manager, Office superintendent, Departmental supervisor, etc.

(b) Class II – Skilled workers: Under this category may come the Purchasing assistant, Cashier, Receipts clerk, etc.

(c) Class III – Semiskilled workers: Under this category may come Steno typists, Machine-operators, Switchboard operators, etc.

(d) Class IV – Semiskilled workers: This category comprises Daftaris, File clerks, Office boys, etc.

The job classification method is less subjective when compared to the earlier ranking method. The system is very easy to understand and acceptable to almost all employees without hesitation. One strong point in favor of the method is that it takes into account all the factors that a job comprises. This system can be effectively used for a variety of jobs.

The weaknesses of the job classification method are:

Even when the requirements of different jobs differ, they may be combined into a single category, depending on the status a job carries.
It is difficult to write all-inclusive descriptions of a grade.
The method oversimplifies sharp differences between different jobs and different grades. When individual job descriptions and grade descriptions do not match well, the evaluators have the tendency to classify the job using their subjective judgments.

Factor Comparison Method:

A more systematic and scientific method of job evaluation is the factor comparison method. Though it is the most complex method of all, it is consistent and appreciable. Under this method, instead of ranking complete jobs, each job is ranked according to a series of factors. These factors include mental effort, physical effort, skill needed, supervisory responsibility, working conditions and other relevant factors (for instance, know-how, problem solving abilities, accountability, etc.). Pay will be assigned in this method by comparing the weights of the factors required for each job, i.e., the present wages paid for key jobs may be divided among the factors weighed by importance (the most important factor, for instance, mental effort, receives the highest weight). In other words, wages are assigned to the job in comparison to its ranking on each job factor.

The steps involved in factor comparison method may be briefly stated thus:
Select key jobs, representing wage/salary levels across the organization. The selected jobs must represent as many departments as possible.
Find the factors in terms of which the jobs are evaluated (such as skill, mental effort, responsibility, physical effort, working conditions, etc.).
Rank the selected jobs under each factor (by each and every member of the job evaluation committee) independently.
Assign money value to each factor and determine the wage rates for each key job.
The wage rate for a job is apportioned along the identified factors.
All other jobs are compared with the list of key jobs and wage rates are determined.

Merits of Factor Comparison Method:
:
Analytical and objective.
Reliable and valid as each job is compared with all other jobs in terms of key factors.
Money values are assigned in a fair way based on an agreed rank order fixed by the job evaluation committee.
Flexible as there is no upper limitation on the rating of a factor.

Demerits of Factor Comparison Method :

Difficult to understand, explain and operate.
Its use of the same criteria to assess all jobs is questionable as jobs differ across and within organizations.
Time consuming and costly.

Point method: This method is widely used currently. Here, jobs are expressed in terms of key factors. Points are assigned to each factor after prioritizing each factor in the order of importance. The points are summed up to determine the wage rate for the job. Jobs with similar point totals are placed in similar pay grades. The procedure involved may be explained thus:

(a) Select key jobs. Identify the factors common to all the identified jobs such as skill, effort, responsibility, etc.

(b) Divide each major factor into a number of sub factors. Each sub factor is defined and expressed clearly in the order of importance, preferably along a scale.

The most frequent factors employed in point systems are:

I. Skill (key factor): Education and training required, Breadth/depth of experience required, Social skills required, Problem-solving skills, Degree of discretion/use of judgment, Creative thinking;

II. Responsibility/Accountability: Breadth of responsibility, Specialized responsibility, Complexity of the work, Degree of freedom to act, Number and nature of subordinate staff, Extent of accountability for equipment/plant, Extent of accountability for product/materials;

III. Effort: Mental demands of a job, Physical demands of a job, Degree of potential stress.

Merits of the Point Method: The point method is a superior and widely used method of evaluating jobs. It forces raters to look into all keys factors and sub-factors of a job. Point values are assigned to all factors in a systematic way, eliminating bias at every stage. It is reliable because raters using similar criteria would get more or less similar answers. “The methodology underlying the approach contributes to a minimum of rating error” (Robbins, p.361). It accounts for differences in wage rates for various jobs on the strength of job factors. Jobs may change over time, but the rating scales established under the point method remain unaffected.

Demerits of the Point Method: On the negative side, the point method is complex. Preparing a manual for various jobs, fixing values for key and sub-factors, establishing wage rates for different grades, etc., is a time consuming process. According to Decenzo and Robbins, “the key criteria must be carefully and clearly identified, degrees of factors have to be agreed upon in terms that mean the same to all rates, the weight of each criterion has to be established and point values must be assigned to degrees”. This may be too taxing, especially while evaluating managerial jobs where the nature of work (varied, complex, novel) is such that it cannot be expressed in quantifiable numbers.

Compensation Strategy

Compensation Strategy is one of the most important strategies in the HRM Function as it influences the costs of the organization and potential bad decision can lead to very serious damages to the organization.

The compensation and benefits strategy is derived from the overall HRM Strategy and it has to be fully aligned. When the HRM Strategy sets the main objectives for the HRM Function, the compensation and benefits strategy has to follow. When the overall HRM Strategy states the low cost of services and employees, the compensation and benefits strategy cannot target the highest salaries at all levels.

The compensation and benefits strategy sets the general rules for the compensation and benefits area in the organization and the owners and leaders of the area. In some organizations, the compensation and benefits department is just a support department for the line management. In other organizations the compensation and benefits manager is a very powerful employee in the organization with the right “veto”.

The compensation and benefits strategy sets the position of the organization on the job market and defines the items in the total cash in the organization and their role. The role of different components of the compensation is very important as the role of the compensation components can differ. For example, the role of bonuses can be primarily in performance reward or the retention of the employees and the organization has to decide.

The compensation and benefits strategy has to reflect the reality in the industry and the surrounding job market. The compensation strategy can set the wish to pay the lowest possible salaries, but the HRM Function and the organization have to respect the reality on the job market.

The compensation strategy needs a strong support from the top management as it sets strong limits to the daily operation of the line management and they usually do not fully agree with all the aspects included in the compensation and benefits strategy.

International Compensation:

Developing international compensation policies requires that it be consistent with overall corporate strategy, structure of a global corporation. The policy must be competitive and take into account incentives for Foreign Service, tax equalization and reimbursement of expenses. Other factors that determine whether or not the compensation package will be acceptable to the potential expatriate are social security, health and medical benefits, and cost of living factors in the foreign location. The main components of an international compensation plan are base salary, Foreign Service inducement, allowances and benefits. The base salary in domestic terms is the cash compensation, bonus and benefits are in addition to this amount. For an expatriate the base salary is a primary component of the compensation package, of which Foreign Service inducement, cost of living allowance and other costs may be a percentage of this amount.

Foreign Service inducement can vary from country to country. U.S. Department of State has published hardship post differential guidelines to determine level of payment. While the hardship guidelines may dictate a high differential cost the Cost of Living Allowance (COLA) may tend to pull this figure down. It is difficult to determine the actual cost of living in a particular country. One method to determine cost of living is according to Philippe Lasserre, Purchasing Power Parity (PPP) which is for example, a cup of coffee that cost $5.00 in New York City may cost €6.00 in France due to spot exchange rates these would be identical in cost however, the housing in Paris may be more than in New York City. To determination this can be quite extensive, housing costs must be considered, as must the cost of entertainment and food. Another cost that should be considered is education costs for children. The spouse may also decide to attend school at the foreign location to fill in any gap in the employment record she may be encountering due to her husbands foreign posting. Care should be exercised in the selection of schools both for the children and the spouse as the accreditation of the foreign school may not be acceptable in the home country. Most international schools in Europe have an acceptable accreditation in the United States.

It is also not possible to defer these payments because this creates an excess contribution and becomes a taxable event, for more information on 401k accounts please see the Internal Revenue Service web site listed in the bibliography. Another issue is the health and medical benefits and continuation of these benefits upon repatriation into the expatriate’s home country. Socialized medicine in many of the Western European countries has made this a non-issue while the expatriate is on assignment in these countries, or if an expatriate is returning to Europe after an assignment in another country. An assignment to the United States for example, the expatriate and his family would require medical insurance. There are several methods for determining the international compensation plan. The first is the going rate approach which in effect, excluding allowances and benefits discussed above, would make compensation similar to the host country nationals. This method of compensation could make things difficult for the expatriate when returning to is home country. If the going rate is considerably higher in the host country, the may be some adjustment upon his return home in there will be a perceived pay cut. The preferred method of compensation is the balance sheet method as defined by C. Reynolds as, “foreign assignees should not suffer a material loss due to their transfer, and this is accomplished via the balance sheet method of international compensation.” Taxation is also a concern to expatriate personnel. Some form of tax equalization should be provided to the expatriate employee. While on assignment for Ericsson the tax equalization was provided by withholding taxes for the parent country and paying the taxes in the host country. Centillium provided no such relief however, due to an existent tax treat between the United Kingdom and the United States my tax burden was not doubled. For further information on taxes and treaties it may benefit employers and employee to discuss their individual situations with a global accounting firm such as Ernst & Young.

UNIT – 5

INTEGRATION

QUALITY OF WORK LIFE

Introduction: There has been much concern today about decent wages, convenient working hours, conducive working conditions etc. Their term “Quality of work life” has appeared in research journals and the press in USA only in 1970s. There is no generally acceptable definition about this term. However, some attempts were made to describe the term quality of work life (QWL). It refers to the favourableness or unfavourableness of a job environment for people. QWL means different things to different people. J. Richard and J. Loy define QWL as “the degree to which members of a work organization are able to satisfy important personnel needs through their experience in the organization.”

Quality of work life improvements are defined as any activity which takes place at every level of an organization, which seeks greater organizational effectiveness through the enhancement of human dignity and growth … a process through which the stockholders in the organization management, unions and employees — learn how to work together better to determine for themselves what actions, changes and improvements are desirable and workable in order to achieve the twin and simultaneous goals of an improved quality of life at work for all members of the organization and greater effectiveness for both the company and the unions.

Richard E. Walton explains quality of work life in terms of eight broad conditions of employment that constitute desirable quality of work life. He proposed the same criteria for measuring QWL. Those criteria include:

(i) Adequate and Fair Compensation: There are different opinions about adequate compensation. The committee on Fair Wages defined fair wage as” . . . the wage which is above the minimum wage, but below the living wage.”
(ii) Safe and Healthy Working Conditions: Most of the organizations provide safe and healthy working conditions due to humanitarian requirements and/or legal requirements. In fact , these conditions are a matter or enlightened self interest.
(iii) Opportunity to Use and Develop Human Capacities: Contrary to the traditional assumptions, QWL is improved… “to the extent that the worker can exercise more control over his or her work, and the degree to which the job embraces and entire meaningful task” … but not a part of it. Further, QWL provides for opportunities like autonomy in work and participation in planning in order to use human capabilities.
(iv) Opportunity for Career Growth: Opportunities for promotions are limited in case of all categories of employees either due to educational barriers or due to limited openings at the higher level. QWL provides future opportunity for continued growth and security by expanding one’s capabilities, knowledge and qualifications.
(v) Social Integration in the Work Force: Social integration in the work force can be established by creating freedom from prejudice, supporting primary work groups, a sense of community and inter-personnel openness, legalitarianism and upward mobility.
(vi) Constitutionalism in the Work Organization: QWL provides constitutional protection to the employees only to the level of desirability as it hampers workers. It happens because the management’s action is challenged in every action and bureaucratic procedures need to be followed lat that level. Constitutional protection is provided to employees on such matters as privacy, free speech, equity and due process.
(vii) Work and Quality of Life: QWL provides for the balanced relationship among work, non-work and family aspects of life. In other words family life and social life should not be strained by working hours including overtime work, work during inconvenient hours, business travel, transfers, vacations etc.
(viii) Social Relevance of Work: QWL is concerned about the establishment of social relevance to work in a socially beneficial manner. The workers’ self esteem would be high if his work is useful to the society and the vice versa is also true.

Quality Circles: Quality circles which have been popularized by Japanese firms are being used all over the world because of the benefits that accrue to the firm. A quality circle involves participation from a small group of employees doing the same type of work. They meet regularly to identify, analyze and solve the problems that arise during the course of their work and their association with the organization.

The basic objectives of quality circles are to develop and utilize human resources effectively, to develop quality products, improve the quality of work life and sharpen and utilize an individual’s creative abilities. There are different steps involved in the development of quality circles from getting started to problem-solving. Communicating the importance of quality circles to the employees is of prime importance.

The next step is the composition of a quality circle. Then the stage of initial problem solving through which employee suggestions are presented, follows. The suggestions are then evaluated and the best one, chosen by consensus, is implemented. Various techniques like brainstorming sessions, fish bone diagram and sampling and charting methods, are used in quality circles.

Problems arise in the implementation of quality circles because of lack of understanding regarding the concepts, low education levels and training, delays in execution and operational problems. Most of these problems can be resolved through effective training of employees and management support.

Industrial Relations: The concept of industrial relations means the relationship between employees and the management in the day-to-day working of the industry. But the concept has a wide meaning. When taken in the wider sense, industrial relations is a “set of functional interdependence involving historical, economic, social, psychological, demographic, technological, occupational, political and legal variables.” According to Dale Yoder, industrial relations is a “whole field of relationship that exists because of the necessary collaboration of men and women in the employment process of an industry.”

According to the international Labour Organisaton (ILO), “Industrial Relations deal with either the relationship between the state and employers’ and workers’ organizations or the relation between the occupational organizations themselves.” The concept of industrial relations has been extended to denote the relations of the joint consultations between employers and people at their organizations. The subject there fore includes individual relations of the joint consultations between employers and people at their work place, collective relations between em0ployers and their organizations and trade unions and the part played by the State in regulating these relations.

Characteristics of Industrial Relations: Characteristics of industrial rations include:
i. Industrial relations are the outcome of employment relationship in an industrial enterprise.
ii. Industrial relations develop the skills and methods of adjusting to and co-operating with each other.
iii. Industrial relations system creates complex rules and regulations to maintain harmonious relations.
iv. The Government involves to shape the industrial relations through laws, rules, agreements, awards etc.

v. The important factors of industrial relations are: employees and their organizations, employer and their associations and the Government.

Factors of Industrial Relations: Industrial relations are influenced by various factors, viz., institutional factors, economic factors and technological factors.
1. Institutional factors: These factors include government policy, labour legislations, voluntary courts, collective agreement, employee courts, employers’ federations, social institutions like community, caste, joint family, creed, system of beliefs, attitudes of works, system of power status etc.
2. Economic factors: These factors include economic organization, like capitalist, communist mixed etc,. The structure of labour force, demand for and supply of labour force etc.
3. Technological factors: These factors include mechanization, automation, rationalization, computation etc.,
4. Social and cultural factors: These factors include population, customs and traditions of people, ethnic groups, cultures of various groups of people etc.
5. Political factors: These factors include political system in the country, political parties and their ideologies, their growth, mode of achievement of their policies, involvement in trade unions etc.
6. Government factors: These factors include governmental policies like industrial policy, economic policy, labour policy, export policy etc.

Objectives of Industrial Relations: The primary objective of industrial relations is to maintain congenial relations between employees and the employer. And the other objectives are:
i. To promote and develop congenial labour management relations;
ii. To enhance the economic status of the worker by improving wages, benefits and by helping the worker in evolving sound budget;
iii. To regulate the production by minimizing industrial conflicts through state control;
iv. To socialize industries by making the government as an employer;
v. To provide and opportunity to the workers to have a say in the management and decision-making;
vi. To improve worker’s strength with a view to solve their problems through mutual negotiations and consultation with the management;
vii. To encourage and develop trade unions in order to improve the workers’ strength;
viii. To avoid industrial conflict and their consequences and
ix. To extend and maintain industrial democracy.

DEFINITION OF A DISPUTE/CONFLICT
According to the Industrial Disputes Act, 1947, Section 2 (k), “Industrial dispute means any dispute of difference between employers and employers, or between employers and workmen or between workmen and workmen, which is connected with the employment or non-employment or terms of employment or non-employment or with the conditions of labour of any person.”
CAUSES OF INDUSTRIAL DISPUTES/CONFLICTS
It not easy to identify a single factor as a cause of industrial conflicts as multifarious causes blended together result in industrial disputes. Deep seated and more basic causes of disputes can be identified through in-depth probe, though surface manifestations appear to be responsible for conflicts. The relative importance of these causes, when more than one present, is often very difficult to gauge.
According to Mukherjee, “the development of capitalistic enterprise, which means the control of the tools of production by the small entrepreneur class has brought to the fore the acute problem of friction between management and labour throughout the world.”
Causes of industrial conflicts may be grouped into four categories, viz.:
1) Industrial factors;
2) Management’s attitude towards workers;
3) Government machinery and
4) Other causes.

TYPES OF INDUSTRIAL CONFLICTS: Industrial conflicts are basically two types, viz. Strikes and Lock-outs. Fig.28.1 shows the manifestation of industrial conflicts.
Strikes: Strikes are the result of more fundamental maladjustments, injustices and economic disturbances. According to Peterson, “strike is a temporary cessation of work by a group of employees in order to express grievances or to enforce a demand concerning changes in work conditions.Under Section 2(q) of the Industrial Disputes Act, 1947, strike is “a cessation of work by a body of persons employed in any industry, acting in combination or a concerted refusal under a common understanding, of a number of persons who are or have bee so employed to continue to work or to accept employment.”
However, prohibiting an individual employee, termination of employment of retrenchment, termination of service of more than one person are not lock-outs.
Strikes are divided into primary strikes and secondary strikes. Primary strikes are generally against the employer with whom the dispute exist. They take the form of stay away strike, sit-in, sit-down, pen-down, tools-down, or mouth-shut strikes, go slow, work-to-rule, token or protest strike, lightening or wildcat strike, picketing or boycott.
Primary Strikes: Stay away strike: In this strike, workmen stay away from the work place. They organize rallies, demonstrations etc.
Stay-in strike or sit-down shut strike: In this strike, workmen come to the place, they stay at the work place but they don’t work.
Tools-down, pen-down or mouth-shut strike: In this strike, the strikers lay down their tools in case of factory workers, lay down their pens in case of office workers and shut their mouth in case of teachers.
Token or protest strike: It is a very short duration and in the nature of signal for the danger ahead. In this strike, the workers do not work for an hour or a day.
Lightening or wildcat strike: In this strike, the strikers strike the work without any prior notice or with a shortest notice.
Go slow: In this strike, the workers intentionally reduce the speed of work.
Work to rule/work to designation: In this strike, the strikers undertake the work according to rules of job description.
Picketing: It is an act of posting pickets and implies machinery or patrolling of the workmen in front of the premises of the employer.
Boycott: It alms at disrupting the normal functioning of the enterprise.
Gherao: It is a physical blockade of a target either by encirclement, intended to block the regress and ingress for a limited period or up to the period of settlement of disputes.
Hunger strike: This type of strike is resorted to either by the leaders of the union or by some workers all at a time or in small batches for a limited period or up to the period of settlement of disputes.
Secondary strike: Secondary strikes are against a third party. These strikes are sympathetic strikes.
Other strikes: These strikes are in the form of general, political strikes and bandhs.
SETTLEMENT OF CONFLICTS:The methods of the settlement of conflicts generally include those mentioned in the figure below: They are dealt in detail in the following paragraphs:
Investigation: This is conducted by a board or court appointed by the government. It may be voluntary or compulsory. If the investigation is conducted on an application by either or both the parties to the dispute, it is voluntary. If the Government appoints a Court of inquiry to investigate into a dispute without the consent of the parties, it is compulsory. Investigations do not aim at bringing about the settlement of disputes directly, but by analyzing the facts, they aim at bringing about an amicable solution. When the investigation is comp0ulsory, the strikes and lock-outs are required to be stopped and employment. The result of investigation has no serious effect on the disputes because the general public is least bothered t make note of the disputes.
Mediation: another attempt to settle disputes is mediation. In this method, an outsider assists the parties in their negotiations. It takes place with the consent of both the parties. The mediator performs the messenger’s job for both the parties and he neither imposes his will nor his judgement upon them. The main aim of mediation is the settlement of disputes by bringing about a voluntary agreement. There may be three kinds of mediation:
(i) The Eminent Outside;
(ii) Non-Government Board; and
(iii) Semi-Governmental Board.
If mediation is conducted skillfully and sympathetically along proper lines, it can bring about the adjustment of differences tat might otherwise contribute to stoppage of work.
Conciliation: the main objective of a conciliation and arbitration is to reunite and arbitration is to reunite the two conflicting groups in the industry in order to avoid interruption of production, distrust etc.
Conciliation is a process buy which representatives of both workers and employers are brought together before third party with a view to persuading them to arrive at some sort of settlement. It is an extension of collective bargaining with third party assistance. It is the practice by which the services of a neutral third party are used in a dispute as a means of helping the disputing parties to reduce the extent of their differences and to arrive at an amicable settlement or agreed solution. It is a process of rational and orderly discussions of differences between the parties to a dispute under the guidance of a conciliator.
Conciliation machinery consists of a conciliation officer and board of conciliations. The conciliator induces the parties to a course of action. He plays the role of an innovator, protector, discussion leader, stimulator, advisor, face saver. He acts as a safety valve and a communication link.
The task of conciliation is to offer advice and make suggestions to the parties to the dispute on controversial issues.
Voluntary Arbitration: If the two parties to the dispute fail to come to an agreement, either by themselves or with the help of a mediator or conciliator, who agrees to submit the dispute to an impartial authority, whose decision, they are ready to accept. The essential elements in voluntary arbitration are:
• the voluntary submission of dispute to an arbitrator;
• the subsequent attendance of witness and investigations and
• the enforcement of an award may not be necessary.
Compulsory Arbitration/Adjudication: Where trade unions are weak, the method of Compulsory Arbitration is used. Compulsory Arbitration is utilized generally when the parties fail to arrive at a settlement through the voluntary methods.
In India, Compulsory Arbitration is enforced because collective bargaining was not used for regulating wages and other conditions of employment.
GRIEVANCE PROCEDURE – Meaning/Definitions:

The concept ‘grievance’ has been defined in several ways by different authorities. Some of the definitions are as follows:
Beach defines grievance as “any dissatisfaction for feeling of injustice in connection with one’s employment situation that is brought to the notice of the management”, whereas Flippo indicates the grievance as “a type of discontent which must always be expressed. A grievance is usually more formal in character than a complaint. It can be valid or ridiculous, and must grow out of something connected with company operations or policy. It must involve an interpretation or application of the provisions of the labour contract.” Jucius defines grievance as” …any discontent or dissatisfaction, whether exposed or not, whether valid or not, arising out of anything connected with the company which an employee thinks, believes or even feels to be unfair, unjust or inequitable.

Causes of Grievances: The causes of employee grievances include:
• Demands for individual wage adjustments;
• Complaints about the incentive system;
• Complaints about the job classifications;
• Complaints against a particular foreman;
• Complaints concerning disciplinary measures and procedures;
• Objections to the general methods of supervision;
• Loose calculation and interpretation of seniority rules and unsatisfactory interpretation of agreements;
• Promotions;
• Disciplinary discharge or lay-off;
• Transfer for another department or another shift;
• Inadequacy of safety and health services/devices;
• Non-availability of materials in time;
• Violation of contracts relating to collective bargaining;
• Improper job assignment;
• Undesirable or unsatisfactory conditions of work;
• Victimization and
• Fines.

Grievance Procedure: The model Grievance Procedure suggested by the National Commission on Labour has provided for the successive time bound steps each leading to the next in case of lack of satisfaction. At the outset, an aggrieved worker shall approach the foreman, inform his grievance orally and seek the redressal of his grievance. If it is not redressed to his satisfaction, he approaches the supervisor who has to give a decision to the complaint of the worker within 48 hours. If the decision (answer) is not acceptable to the worker or if the superior does not give an answer, the worker can go to the next step. At the third stage, the worker can, either in person or accompanied by his departmental representative, approach the head of the department who has to give an answer before the expiry of three days. If the department head fails to do so or if the decision given by him is not acceptable to the worker, then the worker can resort to the Grievance Committee which comprises of the representatives of employers and employees. This Committee shall communicate its recommendations to the manager within seven days of the grievance reaching it. If there are unanimous decisions, these shall be implemented by the management. In case unanimous decisions have not been arrived at, the views of the members of the Committee shall be recorded and all the relevant records shall be placed before the manager for decision. The manager shall communicate his decision within three days. The worker has got a right to appeal against the manager’s decision. These appeals shall be decided within a week. If the aggrieved desires, he can take along with him a union official for discussion with the authority. In case a decision has not been arrived at, at this stage, the union and management may refer the grievance to voluntary arbitration within a week of receipt of the management’s decision by the worker.

GUIDELINES FOR GRIEVANCE HANDLING:

The primary purposes of a grievance procedure are to:
(1) channel conflict into an institutionalized mechanism for peaceful resolution;
(2) facilitate communication between labor and management regarding problems that arise in a collective bargaining relationship;
(3) enable employees to complain with dignity knowing that there is a system of appeals leading to an impartial decision-maker; and
(4) enforce compliance with the terms and conditions negotiated by the parties.

Handling Employee Grievance:
The following checklist is provided as guidance when an employee comes to you with a complaint:

●Make sure that meetings with employees to handle complaints are held in accordance with any contract provisions that regulate the time and/or location for such meetings. Develop good listening and note taking skills.

●Be prepared to spend the time to get the evidence and testimony to support your case and to refute management’s case. Treat all employees fairly and consistently.

●Do not make judgments about the case to the employee or anyone else until you get the facts. Keep good records of all transactions, oral and written, that occur from the time a complaint is brought to you until the case is resolved in the grievance procedure or in arbitration.

INTERVIEW:
●Let the employee tell his/her story without interruption. Take notes. Review the employee’s description of the case with him/her to make sure you have all the facts. Make sure you get the answers to the questions who, what, when, where, why and how.

●Ask the employee for the names, addresses and telephone numbers of any witnesses. Then ask the employee to tell you what he/she thinks each witness knows about the case. Record this information. Try to clarify any uncertainties about what a witness is supposed to know.

●Ask the employee to give you all of the evidence he/she has concerning the case. Make copies so that no information is lost. Before the employee leaves, check one more time to make sure you have all the facts, names of witnesses and evidence.

REVIEW:
●Refer to the grievance procedure in the contract to make sure the issue the employee has raised is defined as a proper subject of a grievance. If you are uncertain, ask for help. If the issue is not a proper subject of a grievance, the best thing to do is to tell the employee and explain how this affects his/her case.
●Check to make sure that the procedural requirements set forth in the grievance procedure have been complied with. If there is more than one witness who knows about a given event, note which ones would be best able to present clear testimony under the pressure of examination and cross-examination at an arbitration hearing.

●Verify name, address, telephone, work shift and location.

ANALYSIS:
After you have thoroughly reviewed all of these matters, you may find that a complaint is not grievable/arbitrable or that the case lacks merit. One way to proceed is to explain your findings to the employee and ask if there is any additional information he/she has that might have a bearing on the case. If not, you should be guided by local or international union policy and perhaps by counsel, in determining how to handle this situation.

FILING:
Be sure to properly and timely complete the grievance form. This includes such items as: names; dates; signatures; clear and accurate statement of the complaint; contract clauses alleged to have been violated; and remedy requested. This is a checklist, not a magic wand. It highlights key points to consider in handling employee complaints. This task is time consuming and requires the application of a number of skills. There are no real short cuts. If you take them, an employer will usually find them at some stage in the grievance procedure or in arbitration. The result may be very damaging involving not only loss of a case that might have been won, but also expenditures of time, other resources and credibility that a union can ill afford.

EMPLOYEE COUNSELING

Employees face a variety of uncertainties, issues and problems both at the work and the family. In fact, the problems are multi-faceted involving economic, social, physical, psychological and religious considerations. Counseling is one of the efficient interventions to find out work and family related employee problems that affect the work negatively. Counseling is the process of helping other persons to find and act upon a solution to their problems, anxieties, uncertainties and issues, the person conducting counseling is called counselor and the person being counseled is called counselee or client.

Concept of counseling
A counselor is mostly concerned with client rather than the problem. The counselor helps the counselee to identify his/her own problem and develop is/her own solution rather than imposing his/her solution. Counselor helps counselee in reaching a solution. This style involves more listening than talking. Counselor uses questions and exploring techniques and enable the client to find out his/her own problem. The counselor further helps the client to learn the problem solving techniques, processes and methods that helps them to solve their problems on their own in the future. the counselor recognizes the emotions, feelings, psychological issues involved in the process.

Counseling can assist the employee to resolve difficulties in a supportive and professional setting. Whether a crisis or something that has been worrying the employee for sometime, counseling can assist the employee to understand the problem, its impact and to develop strategies to cope with it. As employees from time to time, we can experience difficulties either in our work or personal life. At these times, work performance and productivity can be affected. Counseling can result in quicker and less stressful resolution of the problems with less disruption to the workplace.Counseling is confidential and private. Generally, no information can be released without employee’s written authority.

Counseling is provided for work and personal issues such as: Stress , Change, Conflict, Career planning, Communication, Trauma, Depression, Relationship issues, Family problems, Gambling, Grief and bereavement, Anxiety, Drug and alcohol problem & Work satisfaction

Process of Counselling: Counseling is the process of helping other persons to solve their problems. The person conducting the counseling is known as the counselor and the one being counseled is referred to as the counselee or client.
There are four basic styles of counseling, viz., telling, manipulating, counseling and advising. The counseling process includes various steps viz., identifying the needs for counseling, communicating effectively, managing the counseling interview, controlling emotions, and follow-up.

Identifying the needs for counseling: The manager of the department concerned identifies the counseling needs of the employees. The couselling needs may be obvious, based on permanent lateness, irregular attendance, absenteeism, poor quality of work, breakages at the work etc. In addition, the manager can identify the possible and prospective problems. Counseling needs or employee problems may be classified as personality problems, work and organizational related problems and external problems and external problems. Personality problems are related to the image people have of themselves and others.

Communicating effectively: Counselling is mostly done through communication. In other words, communication plays vital role in counselling. Counselor communicates with the counselee by practicing a three step-process, which can be repeated in the counseling interview process. These steps are questioning, listening and responding.
The counselor should use oral, written, verbal and non-verbal communication. The counsellor’s posture and the counsellee’s posture matter much in the counseling process.

Managing the counselling interview: The cousnellor and the counselee should be prepared physically, socially and psychologically before counselling interview. The manager of the employee might have developed good and comfortable relationship with the staff. Therefore, the suggestions of the manager should be considered by the counselor, if the manager is not acting as a counselor. The steps in the interview process include:
1. setting up the interview
2. creating the right interview opportunity
3. starting the interview
4. encouraging the people to talk
5. reaching the core problem
6. discovering when to ask and what to ask
7. exploring the feeling problem
8. develop and provide the solution.

Controlling emotions: counselling mostly involves understanding the feelings of the counselee. The counselor has to gain the confidence and trust of the counselee. Counselling will result in change in the behaviour of the counselee, which causes pain. The counselee can express his feelings freely when the interview environment is free and harmonious. In addition, the counselor should also control his/her emotions and feelings so that the counselee can express his/her feelings and emotions.

Follow-up: The counselor after offering his/her advice provides the methods and step-by-step procedure to the counselee to practise the advice. The counselor has to get feedback from the counselee and ascertain whether the counselee is improving or not. If not, he /she has to modify the advice and follow-up further. Thus, the counselee should ensure the permanent solution to the problem and improvement in the counselee.

DEFINITION OF COLLECTIVE BARGAINING

The phrase ‘Collective Bargaining’ is coined by Sydney and Beatrice Webb. According to them, collective bargaining is a method by which trade unions protect and improve the conditions of their members’ working lives. According to the Encyclopaedia of Social Sciences, “collective bargaining is a process of discussion and negotiation between two parties, one or both of whom is a group of persons acting in consent. The resulting bargain is an understanding as to the terms and conditions under which a continuing service is to be performed. More specifically, collective bargaining is a procedure by which employers and a group of employees agree upon the conditions of work.”

Functions of Collective Bargaining: Collective bargaining plays an important role in preventing industrial disputes, setting disputes and maintaining industrial peace by performing the following functions:
●Increase the economic strength of employees and management.
●Establish uniform conditions of employment.
●Secure a prompt and fair redressal of grievances.
●Lay down fair rates of wages and other norms of working conditions.
●Achieve an efficient functioning of the organization.
●Promote the stability and prosperity of the company.
●It provides a method of the regulation of the conditions of employment of those who are directly concerned about them.
● It provides a solution to the problem of sickness in the industry and ensures ole- age pension benefits and other fringe benefits.
●It creates new and varied procedures for the solution of the problems as and when they arise-problems which vex industrial relations; and its form can be adjusted to meet new situations. Since basic standards are laid down, the employee is assured that he will be required to work under the stipulated conditions incorporated in the agreement and the employer is protected from unfair competition by those who are engaged in a similar industry.
●It provides a flexible means for the adjustment of wages and employment conditions to economic and technological changes in the industry, as a result of which the changes for conflicts are reduced.
●As a vehicle of industrial peace, collective bargaining is the most important and significant aspect of labour management relations, and extends the democratic principle from the political to the industrial field.
●It builds up a system of industrial jurisprudence by introducing civil rights in the industry. In other words, it ensures that the management is conducted by rules rather than by arbitrary decisions.

Collective Bargaining Process: There are two stages in collective bargaining, viz., (i) the negotiation stage and (ii) the stage of contract
1. negotiation
a) identification of problem: The nature of the problem influences the whole process-whether the problem is very important that is to be discussed immediately or it can be postponed for some other convenient time, whether the problem is problem is minor that it can be solved with the other party’s acceptance on its presentation and does not need to involve the long process of collective bargaining process etc.
b) preparing for negotiations: When it becomes necessary to solve the problem through collective bargaining process, both the parties prepare themselves for negotiations.
c) Negotiations of agreement; Usually, there will be a chief negotiator who is from the management side. He directs and presides over the process. The chief negotiator presents the problem, its intensity and nature and the views of both the parties. When a solution is reached at, it is pt on the paper, taking concerned legislations into consideration. Both the parties concerned, sign the agreement which, in turn, becomes a binding contract for both the parties.
2. contract Administration: Implementation of the contract is as important as making a contract. Management usually distributes the printed contract, its terms and conditions throughout the organization. The union takes steps to see that all the workers understand the contract and implement it. From time-to-time depending on changing circumstances, both the parties can make mutually acceptable amendments.
Causes for the Limited Success of Collective Bargaining in India: Though it is argued that collective bargaining has grown in India due to statutory provisions, voluntary measures, Industrial Truce Resolution of 1962 and the amendments to the Industrial Disputes Act, 1947, its success is limited. The causes for its limited success are:
1. Problems with unions: Collective bargaining process mainly depends on the strength of unions. But still there are not many strong unions in India. Unions are marked with multiplicity, inter and intra-union rivalry, weak financial position and non-recognition. Weak trade unions cannot initiate strong arguments during negotiations. There is usually no unanimous decision among workers to be presented at the negotiating table.
2. Problems from Government: The Government has not been making any strong effects for the development of Collective Bargaining. The Government has imposed many restrictions regarding strikes and lock-ours, which is an obstacle for the development of collective bargaining process.
3. Legal Problems: Now adjudication is easily accessible. As such now collective bargaining process is losing its importance.

Maintenance of HR: Organisation provide a variety of fringe benefits. Dale Yoder and Paul D. Standohar classified the fringe benefits under four heads as given hereunder:

For employment security: Benefits under this head include unemployment insurance, technological adjustment pay, leave travel pay, over for maternity, leave for grievances, holidays, cost of living bonus, call-back pay, lay-off pay, retiring rooms, jobs to the sons/daughters of the employees and the like.
For health protection: Benefits under this head include accident insurance, disability insurance, health insurance, hospitalization, life insurance, medical care, sick benefits, sick leave, etc.

For old age and retirement: Benefits under this category include: deferred income plans, pension, gratuity, provident fund, old age assistance, old age counseling, medical benefits for retired employee traveling concession to retired employees, jobs to sons /daughters of the deceased employee and the like.

For personnel identification, participation and stimulation: This category covers the following benefits: anniversary awards, attendance bonus, canteen, co-operative credit societies, educational facilities, beauty parlour services,housing, income tax aid, counseling, quality bonus, recreational programmes, stress counseling, safety measures etc.

Employee Security: Physical and job security to the employee should also be provided with a view to promoting security to the employee and his family members. The benefits of confirmation of the employee on the job create a sense of job security . further, a minimum and continuous wage or salary gives a sense of security to the life. The Payment of Wages Act, 1936, The Minimum Wages Act, 1948, and the Payment of Bouns Act, 1965, provide income security to the employees.

Safety and Health: Employee’s safety and health should be taken care of in order to protect the employee against accidents, unhealthy working conditions and to protect worker’s capacity. In India, the Factories Act, 1948, stipulated certain requirements regarding working conditions with a view to provide a safe working environment. These provisions relate to cleanliness, disposal of waste and effluents, ventilation and temperature, dust and fume, artificial humidification, over-crowding, lighting drinking water, public utility and spittoons. Provisions relating to safety measures include fencing of machinery, work on or near machinery in motion, employment of young persons on dangerous machines, striking gear and devices for cutting off power, self-acting machines, easing of new machinery, probation of employment of women and children near cotton openers, hoists and lifts, lifting machines, chains, ropes and lifting tackles, revolving machinery, pressure plant, floors, excessive weights, protection of eyes, precautions against dangerous fumes, explosive or inflammable dust, gas etc. Precautions in case of fire, power to require specifications of defective parts of test of test of stability, safety of buildings and machinery etc.

Welfare and Recreational Facilities: Welfare and recreational recreation include: (a) Canteens: (b) Consumer societies: (c) Credit societies: (d) Housing; (e) Legal aid: (f) Employee counseling: (g) Welfare organizations; (h) Holiday homes; (i) Educational facilities; (j) Transportation: (k) Miscellaneous.

Old Age and Retirement Benefits: Industrial life generally breaks the family system. The saving capacity of the employee is very low due to lower wages, high living cost and increasing aspirations of the employees and his family members. As such, employers provide some benefits to the employees after retirement and during old age, with a view to create a feeling of security about the old age. These benefits are called old age and retirement benefits, these benefits include: (a) Provident Fund; (b) Pension; (c) Deposit linked insurance; (d) Gratuity and (e) Medical benefit.

Corporate social responsibility:

Corporate social responsibility is becoming an increasingly important priority for many CEOs across the world, and HR has a vital part to play, writes Robin Kramar

Corporate social responsibility (CSR) and sustainable development is gaining increasing prominence in the global business culture, as many businesses attempt to accommodate the CSR agenda. The concept of corporate sustainable development is still the subject of controversy and therefore the indicators used to measure CSR continue to be the topic of debate. However, no matter what indicators are used, the notion of responsibility includes responsibility for people in the collective sense (such as communities) and also for individuals.

The criteria used to measure workplace practices relate specifically to HR practices. The criteria include: employee involvement; fair and reasonable rewards and conditions; a positive commitment to diversity and work-life balance; industrial relations arrangements based on mutual respect; occupational health and safety arrangements; executive remuneration that is fair and reflect the concerns of internal stakeholders; independently verifiable performance measurement and evaluation systems and training and development policies. These criteria indicate that an organisation that is seen as socially responsible creates a culture that is perceived as open, fair and attractive to potential and existing employees.

Research demonstrates CSR initiatives have a positive impact on employee morale, motivation, commitment, loyalty, training, recruitment and turnover. Benefits in these areas have been found to improve the bottom line of companies. Three surveys across Europe, the USA and a survey involving 25 countries found employees felt greater loyalty, satisfaction and motivation when their companies were socially responsible.

A recent survey of 257 CEOs by Korn/Ferry shows that 65 per cent of CEOs are taking responsibility for managing company reputation. Almost three-quarters of the CEOs regarded recruitment and retention as the main business objective of corporate reputation and almost the same percentage identified the hiring and retaining of key and talented people as one of the three top objectives of corporate and social responsibility initiatives. These HR concerns were regarded as more important than more commercial and business outcomes.

Therefore, corporate initiatives can contribute to the branding of organisations in the labour market. These initiatives can make the organisation attractive to employees with similar values and so assist the organisation to become an employer of choice for these potential employees. And, if it lives out the values and initiatives on a daily basis it will assist the retention of desirable employees.

Global HRM : Global HRM refers to Human Resource Management practices that deal with managing a diversity of workforce from all around the world.
The following challenges are being faced by HR managers in terms of globalization:
– Managing diversity of workforce.
– Managing pressures for more labor rights in third world countries.
– Managing Outsourcing of employees.
– More part-time and temporary work
– Managing productivity and Quality
– Downsizing the workforce
– Coping with flexible working hours

The globalization of Business has had a significant impact on human resource management. Even though there has been large scale regional integrations, such as the European Union, human resource manage across borders is very different and can be quite difficult for a Human Resource Professional un-accustom to cross border management. The purpose of this course is gain insights into employee relations from a cultural and international perspective. One would tend to think that Human Resource management in one country would be much like it is in another country. There are similarities in the human resource function from one country to another however; due to cultural differences the human resource function can also be quite different. We must first define the Field of Human Resource Management. According to Peter Dowling in International Human Resource Management, “Human resource management is those activities undertaken by an organization to utilize its human resources effectively.”

These activities include but are not limited to, human resource planning, staffing, performance management, training and education, compensation and benefits, and labor relations. We must consider what, if any, changes to the above definition occur when a company goes international or global. When the human resource activities are spread across different countries therefore, different types of employees must be considered. Employees from the parent company or Parent Company Nationals (PCNs), this is the expatriate manager or technical professional assigned to a different country. The next type of employee is the Host Country National (HCNs), this is an employee of the company form the country which hosts the subsidiary. The last type of employee is a Third Country National (TCNs), these employees are from a country that is neither the host nor the parent country. This expatriate also may be from another subsidiary owned by the parent company. These multi-country nationals lead to issues generally not associated with Human Resource Management (HRM), such as international taxation, international relocation, administrative services for expatriates, and government relations. For example D.L. Pinney discusses tax reimbursement for expatriates because expatriates are subject to international tax and often have domestic tax liabilities; it is therefore incumbent on a company to provide tax equalization. If there is no tax equalization much of the incentive and motivation for the overseas assignments would be lost.

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