Advanced English Communication Skills Lab (AECS LAB) Manual for B.Tech 3rd Year

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Advanced English Communication Skills Lab (AECS LAB) Manual for B.Tech 3rd Year

Advanced English Communication Skills Lab (AECS LAB) Manual for B.Tech 3rd Year

Advanced English Communication Skills Lab (AECS LAB) Manual for B.Tech 3rd Year

Advanced English Communication Skills Lab (AECS LAB) Manual for B.Tech 3rd Year

Advanced English Communication Skills Lab (AECS LAB) Manual for B.Tech 3rd Year

Short Film

B.Tech 1st Year English Study Material – Skills Annexe & Epitome of Wisdom by Raja Rao Pagidipalli





About the Author: Ruth Prawer Jhabvala, (7 May 1927 – 3 April 2013) was a German-born British and American Booker prize winning novelist, short story writer and two-time Academy Award-winning screenwriter. She lived in India for 24 years from 1951, then moved to New York in 1975 and lived there until her death in 2013.


Introduction: Humour is the quality that makes someone or something amusing or funny and wit is the ability to use words in a clever and amusing way. In this story, it is described how often an ordinary situation becomes so comic that brings uncontrollable laughter. This story is based on such a situation from the novel “The House Holder” authored by Ruth Prawer Jhabvala.


Indu and Prem Getting Ready to the Party: In this story, young couple Prem and Indu were invited to Mr.Khanna’s tea party where the college staff members gathering for. Indu was very happy to go as she wanted to escape from the household chores, so she spent a long time dressing herself. She wore lilac-colored silk sari with big flowers and leaves stitched with imitation pearls. She put on red shoes with high soles. She also wore a heavy gold necklace, long earrings and a dozen gold bangles. She oiled her hair and smoothened it. Then she wound her hair round with a fresh chain of jasmine. She applied the red mark on forehead and little lipstick on her lips. She looked grand.   Prem was wearing his best shirt and trousers, and felt proud as they walked together to the college. They were obviously two people dressed up in their best clothes. He asked his wife Indu to behave herself with the requisite decorum and in a way that she was well educated.


Mr & Mrs Khanna: Mr.Khanna is the Principal of Khanna Private College. Mr and Mrs.Khanna invite all the lecturers who are working in their college as a part of social gathering. The party was arranged in the living room of Mr.Khanna on the first floor of the college. Members of the staff with their wives, all dressed up in their best, were seated in a prearranged circles of chairs. Mr.Khanna was standing in the center and there was a polite titter of laughter in response. Among all the women in the tea party, Mrs.Khnna, bossy wife of Mr.Khanna, wore the most gorgeous clothes. Mr.Khanna addressed the guests that the refreshment and revival of mind and body will enable the teachers to resume their duties with new vigor and relaxation was like cool shower-bath on a hot day. Meanwhile, dishes – fritters, samosas and sweetmeats prepared by Mrs.Khanna served to each guest.

Mr.Chadda & Women at the Tea Party: Mr.Chadda was a resourceful but cantankerous member of the staff. He said that the society of ladies had a softening effect and it was like a heroes of taking a break in their battles to have their wounds dressed by their wives and be comforted. He added that gathering like this would promote goodwill and fellowship.  The ladies remain unmoved to the remarks of Mr.Chadda. They were all seated together in one half of the circle. They held themselves very stiff and looked very much aware both of their shining and new clothes, and of the opulent surroundings. Only Mrs.Khanna was at ease, in clothes more gorgeous than anyone else’s.


The shock that Prem Gets: All the guests stared into space and chewed as delicately as they could. In due course, dishes of fritters, samosas and sweetmeats were served. When everyone had eaten the correct amount, the servant went around to collect the plates. Prem wiped his lips with handkerchief and he saw that she still had her plate with more sweetmeats on it. And these sweetmeats she was eating with the same concentration and relish. He felt very uneasy. His eyes stole round to Indu again. She was eating sweetmeat rather in a predatory manner and licking her fingers. When servant came to collect the plate of Indu, she had quickly taken two more large sweetmeats. It was evident to Prem that Indu was by this time quite lost to her surroundings. She was continually biting, chewing, flicking crumbs from her lips with her tongue. She seemed in a trance of enjoyment. The ladies all sat with their hands in their laps. All of a sudden Mr.Chadda stands up and thanks Mr. & Mrs. Khanna for such a wonderful party. Everyone agrees with him. During his talk, Prem sees Indu eating a lot. By the end of Chadda’s speech everyone starts moving home. Prem feels sorry and disappointed.


Prem’s attempt to Save Situation: Prem didn’t blame Indu for her behavior because he had heard that pregnant women had strange and uncontrollable desires. But he was terrified that others who did not know of this would notice. He wanted to give a sign to stop her but she was sitting too far away and too engrossed to meet his eye. Mrs.Khanna pointed at Indu and said to the servant in a whisper which everyone could hear that there is one plate left over there. Prem thought more about how he would like to explain the situation to Mrs.Khanna.


The Ending of the Story both funny and little sad:  Mr.Khanna said that the tea party was over but Prem did not want it to be over. There is still remained so much to do. He wished desperately to make some contribution to the conversation and show everyone that he was intelligent and deep-thinking young man. But the guests were already leaving. Mr. Khanna stood at the door with his hands folded in an attitude of gracious hospitality. Prem wanted to call out ‘stop’. He wanted to make them understand that Indu’s odd behavior was due to natural causes. But did not have the courage to call out and besides he could not really think of anything striking to say. So the ending of the story is both funny and little sad.






Introduction: Sir Mokshagundam Visveswaraya, popularly known as Sir MV, was a man who excelled at many different fields. He was a notable Indian engineer, scholar, statesman and the Diwan of Mysore during 1912 to 1918. He was a recipient of the Indian Republic’s highest honour, the Bharat Ratna, in 1955. Every year, 15 September is celebrated as Engineer’s Day in India in his memory.


Early Life and Beginnings: Sir MV was born in Muddenahalli, a village in Karnataka, on 15th September 1860 to Srinavasa Sastry and Venkatalakshmamma. He completed his high school education from Wesley Mission High School and his graduation from Central College – both in Bangalore. As he had no money to complete his BA, he found a family from Coorg to be their tutor. He was a very bright student. He went on to pursue a course in civil engineering in Pune, having received a scholarship by Mysore Government. While there, he was awarded the James Berkley Gold Medal for outstanding performance. He led a very simple life and was a strict vegetarian. As soon as the results were out, he got first rank in  both LCE & ECE examination and the Government of Bombay offered him the post of an Assistant Engineer at Nasik.


The Block System of Irrigation – Solving the water problem in Nasik: When he was 32 years old, a very difficult task was assigned to him where he was asked to find a way of supplying water from the river Sindhu to a town called Sukkur. The Block System of Irrigation, a scheme prepared by Visvesvaraya, was a big achievement. The objective of the Block System of Irrigation was ‘to distribute the benefits of an irrigation work over a large number of villages and to concentrate the irrigation in each village within blocks of specified limits and in selected soils and situations’. The irrigation system was a great success. This system could stop the wasteful of water in dams. Even British officers of those

times were astonished by his dexterity and they were full of praises for the invention.


Twin Cities Water Problem: After working for the Government of Bombay, for a short period he opted to work for the Nizam of Hyderabad. He suggested flood relief measures for Hyderabad town, which was under constant threat of floods by Musi river. For flood control, he advised construction of two reservoir dams – one across the river Musi and other across its tributary Easi. He also advised to raise the banks of the river within the city and convert the area on either side into walks and gardens along the river front. He had prepared a modern underground drainage scheme for the city, making use of drainage water for agriculture; to widen the road and demolish certain unhealthy areas and construct house for the poor. The dams constructed across the Moosi and Easi are known as Himayatsagar and Osmansagar respectively. These dams provide water to the twin cities

of Hyderabad and Secundarabad. The work was undertaken in 1913 and before the work was completed, he had become the Dewan of Mysore.


Krishna Sagar Dam & Other Achievements: Sir MV was the driving force behind the construction of many major dams and water supply schemes across the country. The famous Krishna Raja Sagar dam in Mysore is one of these. He supervised the construction of the KRS Dam across the Cauvery River from concept to inauguration. This dam created the biggest reservoir in Asia when it was built. The dam was conceived not only for the purpose of irrigation, but also for providing electricity to the Kolar goldfields. He advised 2000 more laborers where 10,000 had already been employed. Doctors were appointed to treat workers afflicted by malaria. He directed all the officials to camp at the spot to speed up the work, to look after the security and supervise the work in general. By facing all unexpected problems and difficulties with courage, he got the work completed well in time. Power was also supplied to Kolar goldfields by July 1915. He was rightly called the “Father of modern Mysore state”. The use of automatic sluice gates, an engineering innovation applied in many dams across the country, was Sir MV’s idea.

Sir MV’s Clarion Call, Industrialize or Perish: Sir MV wanted to remove ignorance, poverty and sickness through Economic Conference. In fact, Economic Planning in India credit goes to Sir MV. He started agricultural schools and experimental farms. Handloom industry was started. A central government weaving factory was established to provide the weavers with latest designs and techniques in weaving. The State Bank of Mysore was founded in 1913 for financing the projects. Rice mills, oil mills, sugarcane crushing mills and power looms came up everywhere. Prior to 1916 sandalwood from Mysore  was exported to France, Italy and Germany. He started sandal oil factory, soap factory, metals factory, chrome tanning factory and Bhadravathi Iron and Steel Works. He brought in many hotels into Mysore and played a major role in the laying of railway lines. He considered industry is the backbone of the country. He took voluntary retirement in 1918 at the age of 57.

Sir MV’s Attitude to Education: Sir MV always believed in the values of education. As a Diwan of Mysore, he opened 6,500 new schools in a span of six years in Mysore State. He established the Maharani’s College in Mysore where the first hostel for girls was opened. He also made arrangements for scholarship to intelligent students to go abroad for studies. Sri Jayachamaraja Polytechnic Institute of Bangalore came into existence with an amount of one hundred thousand rupees that the government owed him. He was considered a magician for so much in so short time. When he turned 100 years, the government of India honoured him by bringing out a stamp. He passed away on 14th, April 1962 at the age of 101.




Introduction: Polymer banknotes are banknotes made from a polymer such as biaxially oriented polypropylene (BOPP). Such notes incorporate many security features not available to paper banknotes, including the use of metameric inks; they also last significantly longer than paper notes, resulting in a decrease in environmental impact and a

reduction of production and replacement costs. Modern polymer banknotes were first developed by the Reserve Bank of Australia (RBA), CSIRO and The University of Melbourne. They were first issued as currency in Australia in 1988. In 1996 Australia switched completely to polymer banknotes. Countries that have since switched completely to polymer banknotes include Brunei, New Zealand, Papua New Guinea, Romania, Vietnam, Fiji, Mauritius , Canada, Malaysia and Israel.


History: In 1967 forgeries of the Australian $10 note were found in circulation and the Reserve Bank of Australia was concerned about an increase in counterfeiting with the release of colour photocopiers that year. In 1968 the RBA started collaborations with CSIRO and funds were made available in 1969 for the experimental production of distinctive papers. The insertion of an optically variable device (OVD) created from diffraction gratings in plastic as a security device inserted in banknotes was proposed in 1972. The first patent arising from the development of polymer banknotes was filed in 1973. In 1974 the technique of lamination was used to combine materials; the all-plastic laminate eventually chosen was a clear, BOPP laminate, in which OVDs could be inserted without needing to punch holes. An alternative polymer of polyethylene fibers marketed as Tyvek by DuPont was developed for use as currency by the American Bank Note Company in the early 1980s. Tyvek did not perform well in trials; smudging of ink and fragility were reported as problems. Only Costa Rica and Haiti issued Tyvek banknotes; test notes were produced for Ecor, El Salvador, Honduras and Venezuela but never placed in circulation. Additionally, English printers Bradbury Wilkinson produced a version on Tyvek but marketed as Bradvek for the Isle of Man in 1983; however, they are no longer produced.


Development: Polymer banknotes were developed in Australia to replace paper banknotes with a more secure and more durable alternative. The BOPP substrate is processed through the following steps:

  • Opacifying – two layers of ink (usually white) are applied to each side of the note, except for an area(s) deliberately left clear;
  • Sheeting – the substrate is cut into sheets suitable for the printing press;
  • Printing – traditional offset, intaglio and letterpress printing processes are used;
  • Overcoating – notes are coated with a protective varnish.

BOPP: BOPP is a non-fibrous and non-porous polymer. Compared to paper banknotes, banknotes made using BOPP are harder to tear, more resistant to folding, more resistant to soil, waterproof, easier to machine process, and are shreddable and recyclable at the end of their lives.


Security features: Traditional printed security features applied on paper can also be applied on polymer. These features include intaglio, offset and letterpress printing, latent images, micro-printing, and intricate background patterns. Polymer notes can be different colours on the obverse and reverse sides. Like paper currency, polymer banknotes can incorporate a watermark in the polymer substrate. Shadow images can be created by the application of optically variable ink, enhancing its fidelity and colour shift characteristics. Security threads can also be embedded in the polymer note; they may be magnetic, fluorescent, phosphorescent, micro-printed, clear text, as well as windowed. Like paper, the polymer can also be embossed.

Polymer notes also enabled new security features unavailable at the time on paper, such as transparent windows, and diffraction grating. Since 2006 however the development of the paper transparent window technologies by De La Rue (Optiks) and G&D (varifeye) have reduced that advantage. The transparent window where the OVD is located is a key security feature of the polymer banknote. It is easily identifiable, allowing anyone to be able to authenticate a banknote. Because the polymer bank note contains many security features that cannot be successfully reproduced by photocopying or scanning, it is very difficult to counterfeit. The complexities of counterfeiting polymer banknotes are proposed to act as a deterrent to counterfeiters. The substrate BOPP film, metalized or otherwise is widely available from European and Chinese suppliers, as is the metameric inks used.


Adoption of Polymer Banknotes: Trading as Innovia Security, Innovia Films markets BOPP as ‘Guardian’ for countries with their own banknote printing facilities. Note Printing Australia (a subsidiary of the RBA) prints commemorative banknotes and banknotes for circulation and has done so for 20 countries. As of 2011, at least seven countries have converted fully to polymer banknotes: Australia, Bermuda, Brunei, New Zealand, Papua New Guinea, Romania and Vietnam. Other countries and regions with notes printed on Guardian polymer in circulation include: Bangladesh, Brazil, Canada, Chile, Dominican Republic, Hong Kong (for a 2- year trial), Indonesia, Israel, Malaysia, Mexico, Nepal, Solomon Islands (no longer issued), Sri Lanka, Thailand, Samoa, Singapore and Zambia. Canada released its first polymer banknote ($100) on 14 November 2011, followed by the $50 banknote on 26 March 2012 and the $20 banknote on 7 November 2012 and finally, the $10 and $5 banknotes on 7 November 2013. Countries and regions that have issued commemorative banknotes on Guardian polymer include: China, Taiwan, Kuwait, Northern Ireland and Singapore.



About the Author: Helen Keller was born in Alabama (USA) in 1880. She was deaf and blind. Anne Sullivan, a graduate from Perkins Institute for the Deaf, became her teacher and governess and remained her companion for many years. Helen Keller was an exceptionally talented author, political activist, and an inspirational lecturer. Many of her works express the simple fragments of life which, together, fabricate the essence of living. As demonstrated in her essay “Three Days to See”. Helen brings forward her imagination and desire to further understand the world in a depiction of what she would do should she be given the use of her sight for just 3 days.

Introduction: “Three Days to See” by Helen Keller, is a fascinating account of what we can really see, perceive and assimilate from the wonderful world around us. Her life should be an example for the humans. It is an excellent rule to live each day as if we should die tomorrow. It would teach us values of life. The writer, while making a systematic plan of all the things she would like to see if she were gifted eye-sight for just three days and nights, makes one realize how insensitive human beings are to their senses.

Day One: She would see all the people who made her life worth living, particularly Mrs. Anne Sullivan Macy. Macy opened the outer world to her as a child.  She wants to study her teachers face who is the evidence of sympathetic tenderness and patience. She likes to see in her teacher’s eyes which give strength of character which has enabled her to stand firm in the face of difficulties, and that compassion for all humanity which she has revealed to me so often. She wants see all her dear friends and look long into their faces, imprinting upon her mind the outward evidences of the beauty. And busy with viewing small simple things of her home. She wants to see the warm colours in the rugs under her feet, the pictures on the walls, the intimate trifles that transform a house into home. She is going to read some printed colourful books which are helping her to understand the human life and human spirit. First day afternoon she wants to take long walk in the woods and intoxicate her eyes on the beauties of the world of nature, trying desperately to absorb the beauty of the nature permanently in her mind. At night she is going to get interesting experience by seeing artificial light, which the genius of man has created to extend the power of his sight when Nature decrees darkness. She is not going to sleep because her mind is full of memories of the day and waiting for the second day experience.

Day Two: On second day, she would wake up seeing the magnificent panorama of light at Sunrise. She wants to see a pageant of man’s progress through the ages. With the help of great New York Museum, the Metropolitan Museum of Art and the Museum of Natural History, in the second day she needs to know the past and present history and the great progress of human kind, how the man achieved the control on the world with his tiny stature and powerful brain. She wants to see the huge carcasses of dinosaurs and mastodons that roamed the earth before. She tries to know how the man created his secure home on this planet and a thousand and one other aspects of natural history. In the Metropolitan museum of Art, she wants to see the statues of Apollo, Venus, the Island of Samothrace, Homer, Moses and Rodin. And different art styles Roman sculpture, Gothic wood carving and the simple line of a Greek vase etc. She needs to look the magnificent world of paintings like Raphael, Leonardo da Vinci, Titian El Greco, Veronese and Rembrandt. In the second day evening she is going to spend the time at a theater or  at the movies there she need to observe and watch the different characters like Hamlet, Falstaff and Joseph Jefferson, Rip Van Winkle  etc. All together the second day is an imaginary day of sight, the great figures of dramatic literature would crown sleep from her eyes.

Day Three: On the third and last day of sight, Helen would drive from her home town surrounded by lawns, trees and flowers. It is a haven of peaceful rest for men who toil in the city.  She would drive on the bridge, the lacy steel structure built across the East River. The structure is a symbol of the power and skill of the mind of man. She would watch the delightful activities and busy boats upon the river.  She would look at the fantastic towers and steel structure of New York which only gods built for themselves. She feels happy when people smile at her and feels proud when she finds serious determinations on their faces. She becomes compassionate when she sees suffering people. Then she goes to the fifth avenue and is impressed by the colour of women dresses. She wants to become a window-shopper. From there, she goes to Park Avenue, slums, factories and parks and also visits foreign quarters. She wants to know how people work and live. Some sights would be pleasant, but some pathetic. Before the third day of sight comes to an end, she wants to see a funny play in a theatre. She wants grasp the sense of comedy in the human spirit. By the close of three days, her mind would be crowded with glorious memories. So there would be no regrets for the loss of sight once. She would advise us to make the most every sense to enjoy all the facets of pleasure and beauty which nature provides.

Conclusion: The God gave very precious and powerful gifts to us but we are not using them properly if we use these valuable gifts we can make wonders in the world. Helen Keller had physical challenges but she took her life as a challenge and she achieved and created history. Through this lesson we can learn how to lead our life in positive prospect and how to use our natural powerful gifts to make our lives for good cause.






About the Author: Joe Crampton gives a detailed account in this essay on “The Deadly Factory Fires in India Illustrate Need for Stronger Risk Management”. He is the Vice-President of Resolver Inc, Canada.


Introduction: Risk Management is a complex task that every company must deal with. India has found itself quickly becoming a major resource center for big corporations around the world. With a huge labor market, many businesses rely on the country as a key component to manufacturing operations. Everyone should be able to work in a safe and healthy workplace. Employers must prepare a policy with respect to workplace safety and maintain a program to implement the policy.


Definition: Risk management is a two-step process – determining what risks exist in an industry and then handling those risks in a way best-suited to the objectives of that company. It is the continuing process to identify, analyze, evaluate, and treat loss exposures and monitor risk control to mitigate the adverse effects of loss.


Critical Risks in Using Laborers: Using laborers in the country is a critical risk on a number of levels. Clearly there are social issues – the use of child labor and sweatshops. Apple Company is facing such problems for manufacturer conditions in China. Another critical issue is safety. Poor worker safety leads to problems in all three core business areas: brand reputation, operational efficiency and revenue.


Sivakasi Factory Explosion: Sivakasi in Tamilnadu is considered the “fireworks capital” of India. There was an explosion at the Om Shakthi Fire Works Factory on 5 September 2012. 38 workers were killed and the factory was destroyed. The heat was so intense that many local villagers were also hurt, and firefighters struggled with the blaze for five hours. The fire quickly spread to a number of adjoining factories and burned a stock of fireworks manufactured.


Working Conditions in South Asia: According to Business Insider, several factors combine to make death traps of factories across South Asia. In many factories, exits are locked, basements used as storerooms for highly flammable raw materials and no fire escapes installed, while smoke alarms or sprinkler systems are totally not found. In the United States or in other developed countries safety measures are strictly implemented. But the fire services in South Asia are among some of the least developed in the world. Industrial zones in India tend to spread into residential slums presenting dozens of opportunities for catastrophe. Specifically, industrial zones in India encroach into residential slum areas. Therefore they are prone to disasters. Risk Management Monitor reports that in Bangladesh alone, there have been more than 600 factory fire deaths over the last five years.


Solutions for Fire Risks:


  • Training and strict procedures will eradicate many possible fires.
  • Use signs and constantly broadcast the dangers to the staff.
  • All electrical equipment should be tested regularly.
  • Ensuring store rooms are keep as tidy as possible will reduce the risk.
  • High degree of supervision with suitable firefighting equipment.


Reasons for Fire Mishaps: V. Ramamoorthy, managing director of Jubilant Crackers said that mishaps in professionally-run units were comparatively rare and in the event of an accident safety measures were in place to put out fire. Smaller manufacturers reportedly employ inexperienced workers to meet the market demand during India’s Diwali festival season. This leads to accidents.  It’s a standard practice in Sivakasi for fireworks industry workers to take home raw material and deliver the finished goods to their employers, disregarding the risk involved for themselves and for their families. In 1994-95, a state government study sponsored by the U.N. Children’s Fund found that around 33,000 children belonging to 6-14 age-group were working in Sivakasi, with 30,000 employed in the match industry and 3,000 in the fireworks industry.


Big Brands and Risk Management: Foreign corporations frequently employ manufacturers and factories in foreign countries in an effort to capitalize on inexpensive labor costs. Companies need to utilize the best risk management solutions and practices to ensure they enjoy a profitable relationship with these suppliers. A corporation is able to mitigate losses by frequently assessing and monitoring risks. Employer should take whatever steps necessary to ensure the safety of workers. They should look for those things at work that have the potential to cause harm and identifying the appropriate measures to eliminate and control the risks. Criminal negligence seems to be the cause of factory disasters in India and other countries. India must create a safe work environment in the fabric and textile factories before more fire accidents occur.






About the Author: R.K.Narayan was born in the Indian city of Madras in 1906. He trained to be a journalist and then went on to win international recognition for his numerous novels, five collections of short stories, four collections of essays and two travel books. He was admired and encouraged by the English novelist Graham Greene, who described him as “the foremost Indian writer in English”. He is widely regarded as the finest Anglo‐Indian writer of the twentieth century. He has received several awards and his work has been translated into many different languages. Leela’s Friend is one of his best‐known and most popular short stories. The story is taken from his “Malgudi Days”.


Introduction: It is clear from the title “Leela’s Friend” that the story is about Leela and her friend Sidda. The story brings forth the class‐conflict between the high and the low of the society. Sidda becomes the victim of that conflict. Mr. Sivasanker and his wife are living with their fiveyear old daughter. Being suspicious people, the couple create trouble for servants. But Leela is innocent. She wants a servant to play with her.


Mr. Sivasankar & His Wife: Mr. Sivasankar is deeply thinking about his servant‐problem. Sidda, a homeless poor boy, comes to his gate just then in search of a job. Sivasanker looks at him and finds nothing objectionable. Yet he asks a few questions about his previous work. He calls then his wife. She seems to be a problematic woman. She always suspects servans, so no servant works in the house for a long time. She is a domineering wife. She says Sidda does not seem to be worse than the earlier servant. Leela, their five‐year old daughter comes out and likes the boy. Sidda is selected on an agreement of two meals a day and four rupees a month. In return he is to wash clothes, tend the garden, run errands, chop wood and look after Leela.


The Role of Sidda: Sidda is a likeable boy who gets on well with the family. He is a modest man. He does not open the gate of the house without the permission of Mr.Sivasankar. As a servant he prepares to do any work he is asked to do. He is an obedient servant. He becomes a good friend with Leela. They play together with a ball.

He throws the ball upward. When the ball comes down, he tells her that the ball has touched the moon. Even he has touched the moon many times from a coconut tree. The innocent girl believes every word of Sidda. She also expresses her desire to touch the moon. She is surprised to see that wherever they move, the moon is there. She claps in joy. Sidda informs her that he really knows the moon which follows up his command.


Leela’s Character: Leela is very innocent. At day’s end Leela plays the teacher to Sidda. She tries to teach him with her little knowledge. She writes a letter or draws a kind of cat or crow, and asks him to copy it. But he is a very poor performer. Yet Leela does not give up her effort. She does not allow him to leave his task. The game of teaching goes on for a long time. Sidda gets relief only when he falsely tells her that her mother is calling her to dinner. Every night Sidda tells a nice story to put Leela to sleep. Day by day he becomes her constant companion. A sweetening relationship is established between them.


Missing Gold Chain: One evening Sidda goes out to buy sugar and Leela accompanies him. When they come home, Leela’s mother noticed that the gold chain around Leela’s neck is missing. Being furious she slaps Leela and calls Sidda at once on suspicion. Sidda defends himself feebly but leaves the house stealthily. At this Mr. Sivasanker and his wife are convinced that Sidda is the culprit. He lodges a complaint against him in the Police Station. But Leela is not ready to believe this. She longs for his company. She is deeply sorrowful. She thinks that her parents are responsible for her friend’s leaving their house. The loss of gold chain does not matter to her.

Mr. Sivasanker learns from the Police Inspector that Sidda has criminal records. He has been in jail for several times for stealing jewellery from children. He assures his wife that the police will arrest Sidda very soon. Four days later, the police Inspector and a constable brings in Sidda. Leela is very happy and runs to meet him. The Inspector stops her and presses Sidda to confess his guilt. Leela’s mother abuses him for his treachery. Sidda only replies that he has not taken the chain. The Inspector tells his constable to take him back to the police station. Leela requests him to free Sidda. But nobody listens to her. She starts to shed tears.


Conclusion: A few days later, Leela’s mother discovers the lost gold chain from a tamarind pot. She comes to know that Leela has dropped it there and forgotten all about it. Mr. Sivasanker learns all and informs the police about the chain’s discovery, but does not allow Sidda to continue his job. Sidda remains a confirmed criminal in his eyes. Poverty leaves a permanent wound to Sidda’s life. Though he tries to overcome his dark past and is proved guiltless at the end of the story, he is not either allowed to continue his job neither provided with an apology. The so‐called society remains indifferent to his sorrows and sufferings. R. K. Narayan has raised his voice to protest against this through the present story.









About the Author: Arnold Joseph Toynbee (1889 –1975) was a British historian, research professor and author of numerous books. He is best known for his 12-volume A Study of History, through which he examined the rise and fall of 26 civilizations in the course of human history, and he concluded that they rose by responding successfully to challenges under the leadership of creative minorities composed of elite leaders.


Introduction: Arnold Toynbee gave a lecture on the human values and ethics of the Indian people during independence struggle. In that lecture he appreciated Indian attitude towards life and approach to the handling of human affairs. Human values are a set of consistent behaviors and measures that guide human beings in doing what is right and acceptable by the society. They attract dignity, respect and appropriateness among people. Professional ethics relate to the rules governing the conduct, transactions and relationships within a profession and among its publics.


Human Values and Ethics adopted during the Indian independence struggle:

According to Toynbee, Human Values and Ethics adopted during the Indian independence struggle were unlike any other country’s revolution. Some of the concepts were: Nonviolence, Civil disobedience and Non-cooperation. After getting the freedom Indians never brood over the past or nurse their grievances. Inviting a British to deliver a lecture resembles their attitude and their professional ethics. Toynbee also quoted that we are all living in an age in which technology can destroy entire world.

Though all are physically neighbors, but psychologically strangers to one another. Mutual destruction depends on how we are going to react. We have to love our neighbors as precious members of the human family, which is now exposed to the common danger of being wiped out by atomic warfare. In 1945 the atom bombs were dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki. All must live together like a single family. We must love our neighbours. Variety in unity is a great Indian achievement. There must be amity among all sections of people. Another great Indian achievement is the combination of hard practical work and contemplation.


Indian People’s Freedom form Rancour: One Indian virtue that greatly impressed Toynbee and touched him greatly was the Indian people’s freedom from rancor. Indians never hate their adversaries. After a successful struggle, they do not brood over the past and nurse grievances. They do not hate the British and Muslims who ruled India. Indians were inspired by Gandhiji to keep the freedom struggle on a spiritual plane above the level of mere politics. Non-violent revolution is a characteristic Indian accomplishment.

The spirit of non-violence is a state of feeling inspired by moral ideal. The people must live in harmony. A broad-minded approach to reality is characteristic of India. Indians tolerate the ways of the others. Appreciation of variety is an object lesson of great value for the rest of the world in this atomic age. Technology has removed distances. According to Toynbee, the new field of action in India’s domestic life that non-violent revolution has found is that Bhoodan movement, a voluntary land reform movement in India started in 1951 and he alleged that Ashoka substituted religious propaganda for military aggression.


Gandhiji’s Unique Achievements: Arnold Toynbee gives an account of the unique achievements of the Indian people under the leadership of Gandhiji. These achievements are of very great value to the whole world in the present atomic age. Gandhi’s vision for the country and his dreams for the community as a whole still hold good for India. He got the community to assimilate and reflect true values of humanity and to participate in tasks that would promote the greater good. These issues are still relevant to what free India is and represents.

The main cause of worry today is intolerance and hatred leading to violence and it is here the values of Gandhi need to be followed to with more passion. He is relevant not yesterday or today but forever. Gandhiji was benefactor to not only to India but also Britain. He made it impossible for Britain to go on ruling India but he made it possible for Britain to withdraw without disgrace. He saved both Britain and India from one of the commonest tragedies of history.


Conclusion: According to Toynbee, Gandhiji proved that spiritual activity and practical can go together. The spiritual gift of contemplation makes Man human. This gift is still in Indian souls. It saves mankind from self-destruction. He dreamed that of ethics and values practiced in daily lives. He dreamed of a new world of non-violence with overall peaceful environment. Non-violence is a universal phenomenon and it has great relevance and significance. It is the ultimate solution of all kinds of problems and conflicts in the society, nation and world.












About the Author: William Sydney Porter (1862 – 1910), known by his pen name O. Henry, was an American writer. O. Henry’s short stories are known for their wit, wordplay, warm characterization, and clever twist endings. Most of O. Henry’s stories are set in his own time, the early 20th century. Many take place in New York City and deal for the most part with ordinary people.


The Last Leaf Summary:


Sudie & Johnsy: Greenwich Village is an old town where people enthralled by paintings and arts. At the topmost floor of a squeaky three-story building lived Sue and Johnsy. Johnsy’s full name was Joanna and Sudie fondly called Sue. They met at a restaurant where they found out that they share the same interests when it comes to art and food. While Sue belongs to Maine, Johnsy belongs to California. They set up a joint studio. Six months after in November, pneumonia spread like an epidemic in the artist colony. One after another, the inhabitants came under the spell of this disease. The virulent pneumonia quickly made the frail-bodied Johnsy bed-ridden. With a pallid face, she lay helplessly on her iron bed looking vacantly at the outside sky through the Dutch window. Johnsy’s condition deteriorated fast. Seeing that her friend was slipping dangerously, Sue called in the over-stretched doctor to see her friend Johnsy lying hopelessly sick.

She had very little chance to live, and Sue was saddened. The doctor informs Sue that Johnsy has only one chance in ten and that one chance is for her to have a strong desire to live. Medicine can cure only half the disease and the other half depends on the will power of the patient. Saying this, the doctor asked if the patient had any un-fulfilled desire. Sue answered that Johnsy had wanted to paint the Bay of Naples one day. The doctor was somewhat un-convinced at this. He asked if Johnsy had any young man in mind. Johnsy lay in her bed motionless, like deadwood. Sue quickly replied in the negative.

Sue arranged for Johnsy’s diet and began to draw a pen sketch for a story. The sketch Sue was drawing pertained to a cowboy from Idaho with his typical trousers and monocle. Just then, she heard a low, muffled sound that appeared to be a count-down exercise. Quite perplexed, Sue rushed to her friend’s bedside. Johnsy lay there motionless staring at something outside and counting backwards. In her faint voice, she counted 12, 11, 10 and so on. Johnsy was staring through the window watching leaves fall from a vine on the opposite building wall. Johnsy said that if the last leaf on the Ivy vine fell, she would pass away. Her dream of painting the Bay of Naples would not be fulfilled. Sue went on to do an art piece, while she requested Johnsy not to look at what she was painting. Sue asked Johnsy to let her finish her incomplete art work. Sue was keen to get her fees from the client. Johnsy was unmoved. She continued her count down despite being admonished by her friend. She seemed to be seeing death almost knocking at her door. She said she was waiting for the last leaf to fall so that she could depart. She suggested Sue to move to the other room so that she could continue her count down. Sue said she would be at her friend’s bedside. She insisted that Johnsy must stop the counting. She preceded and called Behrman who protected them like their watch dog.

Behrman: Behrman was an old painter staying in Greenwich Village, hoping to paint his masterpiece one day. For twenty five years he had been trying to do it, but he did not begin it yet. He had a long beard like that of Moses. For forty years he had been painting without achieving anything. He was a failure in art. He was earning a little money by serving as a model to young artists. He used to drink gin excessively. He was burly, and posed as the self-appointed protector of the two women artists living in the first floor. Sue found Behrman in his dimly lit studio in the ground floor. Sue narrated how Johnsy had been lying in her sick bed with her obsession with the last leaf in the vine that stood between her and her death. He ridiculed Johnsy for her idiomatic imaginations. In spite of his old age, he braves a storm one night to paint a leaf on the wall — a leaf that will never fall. That night, during a bad storm destined to tear the last leaf from the tree, Old Behrman, regardless of the cold, wet night paints a vivid leaf on the outdoor vine to restore the dying Johnsy’s hope to live. The last leaf ignited Johnsy’s life again.

Johnsy’s Life & Behrman’s Death: Johnsy was light and fragile like a leaf. The next morning she saw the last leaf intact. It did not fall. The next day, the last leaf is still on the vine. And, the next day, it’s still there. She found a new life and asked for some broth and milk. Johnsy begins to improve. The doctor visits and gives her a much better chance of survival. But, he lets her know that the old man downstairs is now stricken with pneumonia. They found Behrman in his room sick, wet, and cold. Outside was a ladder and his palette of paints where he had painted a single leaf on the wall. It was the last leaf that had given hope to the sick girl Johnsy which had given her the will to live. However, old Behrman died of pneumonia during the night. The painted leaf that saved Johnsy was his master piece. The rain and the snow caused in him pneumonia resulting in his death.


Conclusion: Sue instructed Johnsy to look at the window, and ask her why she thinks that the last leaf never fell. It never fell because it was Behrman’s masterpiece, and he painted it the night the last leaf fell. The Last Leaf speaks highly of the sincere lasting friendship just as the evergreen ivy leaf, and the noble spirit of selfless sacrifice. It is a symbol of sacrifice like the cross on which Jesus was crucified in order to save the sinners.





Introduction: Sachin Tendulkar is a former Indian cricketer, widely acknowledged as the greatest batsman of the modern generation, popularly holds the title “God of Cricket” among his fans. Given his first cricket bat at the age 11, Tendulkar was just 16 when he became India’s youngest Test cricketer. He is the only player to have scored one hundred international centuries, the first batsman to score a Double Century in a One Day International, and the only player to complete more than 30,000 runs in international cricket. Brian Lara has labeled Tendulkar as the greatest cricketer of all time. The talent and genius of Sachin Tendulkar was best summed up by the legendry sir Don Bradman when he said that batting style of Sachin Tendulkar reminded him of his own youth. In September 2007, Shane Warne, the world-record breaking Australian leg spinner, rated Sachin Tendulkar as the greatest player he has played with or against. Sachin Tendulkar was the only player of the current generation to be included in Bradman’s Eleven, the dream team of Sir Donald Bradman, published in his biography. He is sometimes referred to as the Little Master or the Master Blaster.

Early Years: Sachin Tendulkar was born April 24, 1973 in Bombay, India, to a middle-class family, the youngest of four children. His father was a professor while his mother worked for a life insurance company. Named after his family’s favorite music director, Sachin Dev Burman, Tendulkar wasn’t a particularly gifted student, but he’d always shown himself to be a standout athlete. At the age of 14 he scored 329 out of a world record stand of 664 in a school match. As his accomplishments grew, he became a sort of cult figure among Bombay schoolboys. After high school Tendulkar enrolled at Kirti College, where his father also taught. The fact that he decided to go to the school where his father worked was of no surprise. Tendulkar’s family is very close and years after he’d achieved stardom and cricket fame, he continued to live next door to his parents.


Professional Play: Sachin Tendulkar a boy of 16 walks in to bat against the fiery attack of Waqar Younis and is hit on the head, but was continued to bat, in a blood-soaked shirt establishing his greatness, even then this little boy goes on to make half century. This boy was none other than the phenomenal Sachin Tendulkar. He made his debut in international competition with a match against Pakistan in Karachi. Sachin Tendulkar, the very name that strikes terror in the hearts of the bowlers all over the world, is regarded as the most accomplished batsman of modern day cricket. Since his debut against Pakistan in 1989, Sachin Tendulkar has been shining like a star in the international cricketing arena. Ever since Sachin made his debut, he has not looked back. Sachin has piled up runs against all teams in the world. Sachin Tendulkar is rightly hailed as the master blaster as he treats most of the bowlers with utter disdain. This man employs almost every shot mentioned in the cricketing manuals. He is capable of tearing apart any bowling attack. The most fascinating part of Sachin’s batting is that he keeps improvising the shots in his armory.

His batting is based on the purest principles: perfect balance, economy of movement, precision in stroke making, and that anticipation. There are no apparent weaknesses in Tendulkar’s game. He can score all around the wicket, off both front foot and back, can tune his technique to suit every condition, temper his game to suit every situation and has made runs in all parts of the world. His century as a 19 year – old on a lightning-fast pitch at the WACA is considered one of the best innings ever to have been played in Australia.


Achievements: Sachin Tendulkar is the most prolific run scorer in one-day internationals with 18,426 runs. With a current aggregate of 15,470 Test runs, he surpassed Brian Lara’s previous record tally of 11,953 runs as the highest run scorer in test matches in the second Test of Australia’s 2008 tour of India in Mohali. He also holds the record of highest number of centuries in both Test (51) and ODI (49) cricket. Tendulkar scored his much awaited 100th international hundred on 16 March 2012 against Bangladesh in the Asia Cup. Throughout his career, he has made a strong impact on Indian cricket and was, at one time, the foundation of most of the team’s victories.


World Cup Cricket: Tendulkar has also consistently done well in Cricket World Cups. Tendulkar was the highest run scorer of the 1996, 2003 & 2011 Cricket World Cups. In April 2011 Tendulkar chalked up another milestone when he led India to a World Cup victory, his first in his long career. During the tournament, the batsman again showed why he’s one of the sport’s greatest athletes by becoming the first batsman to score 2,000 runs and six centuries in World Cup play. On 24 February 2010, Tendulkar broke the previous world record for highest individual innings in an ODI, and became the first male cricketer to score a doublecentury in one-day cricket. He made 200 runs and broke the previous record of 194 runs.


Personal Life: In 1995, Sachin married Anjali, a doctor and the daughter of Gujarati industrialist Anand Mehta. They have two children, Sara and Arjun. Tendulkar now sponsors 200 underprivileged children every year through a Mumbai-based NGO.


Honours & Awards: Today Tendulkar is a national icon to fans all over the world. He has been granted the highest Indian’s civilian award – Bharat Ratna along with the Padma Vibhushan, Padma Shri, Rajiv Gandhi Khel Ratna, Arjuna Award, Padma Vibhushan by the Indian government. On 10 October 2013 Tendulkar announced that he would retire from all cricket after the two-Test series against West Indies. No wonder, he is the most worshipped cricketer not only in India but in the world.





About N.R.Narayana Murthy: Narayana Murthy is an Indian IT industrialist and the co-founder of Infosys, a multinational corporation providing business consulting, technology, engineering, and outsourcing services. He was born on August 20, 1946 in Karnataka, India. He started Infosys in 1981 and served as its CEO from 1981 to 2002 and as chairman from 2002 to 2011. In 2011, he stepped down from the board and became Chairman Emeritus. An Honorary Doctorate was conferred on him on the occasion of JNTUH convocation which was held on 7th May 2012. In his convocation address, he hailed the giant strides made by the country on various fronts but rued that lakhs of Indians are still mired in poverty, illiteracy, ill-health and malnutrition.


Introduction: N.R.Narayana Murthy emphasizes that the dreams of the founders of the nation can be realized only by maintaining the idealism, confidence, hope, energy and enthusiasm of every Indian. He hopes that thirty years from now the situation will be different. The people will have faith in the country. They will create developed India, and solve the problems of poverty, illiteracy, and ill-health. They will be respected for their achievements. Every nation will want to trade with India. Foreign students will come to study in India. We can wipe off the tears of the poorest child as Mahatma Gandhi desired. By driving away the darkness around us, we can make India a better country for all people.


Extraordinary Aspects of India: The extraordinary India that N.R.Narayana Murthy sees has many aspects. For the first time in several hundred years India has received respected from the world community. The world has realized that India has something to contribute to the global community. Indian economy is growing at 7 percent which is the highest rate since 1947. India has also become the software center of the world. Now India’s foreign exchange reserves are about 300 billion dollars. India has created the maximum number of jobs among the emerging economies. Bollywood dancing has become popular among the western youth. According to Forbes magazine, India has the highest number of billionaires in Asia. The significant changes that Murthy sees around him are that the youngsters of today will drive away the darkness around us and make India a better country for the urban, the rural, the rich, the poor, the educated and the not so well educated. The recipe for successful  transformation of India has been conveyed by coach Kabir Khan and the women hockey players in the movie, Chak De India.


The Dark Side of India: The extraordinary optimistic side of India has its pessimistic side as well. India has made considerable strides of development in the recent times. But it is dogged by deep poverty, literacy, ill-health, malnutrition and corruption. Bright, idealistic and confident youngsters are becoming hopeless, diffident, self-seeking and unhappy by the time they reach forty years of age. The Indian political system and environment must be blamed for this situation. This is not how India can be built into a great nation. More than 200 million Indians do not have safe drinking water. About 750 million Indians do not have sanitation facilities. Our politicians keep the people poor, illiterate, and helpless. In the Human Development Index, India is ranked low, but we rank high in corruption. Indian’s record in primary and higher education is pitiful. The worst thing is that our environment is like this. Hence this way a great nation cannot be built.


Conclusion: In order to achieve positive transformation and make India a better and happy place, a few inputs are necessary. They look simple but they are hard to follow.  First of all, the people must identify themselves as Indians and rise above their narrow attachments to their states, religions and castes. These are narrow domestic walls. Only merit must be taken into consideration. Whatever the role people get, they must play it with enthusiasm. The people must inculcate strict discipline. Then only they will get success. They must get rid of their biases. They must realize that the interests of the nation are foremost. They must lead others by personal example. He prays to God to give the people the required strength, determination and character to transform India into a successful nation. He was discussing exciting new developments in the field of computer science with a large group of students and how such developments would alter our future. He was articulate, passionate and quite convincing.